中國農業科學 ?? 2015, Vol. 48 ?? Issue (8): 1506-1517.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.08.05

? 耕作栽培·生理生化 ? 上一篇    下一篇

砂姜黑土小麥根系性狀與冠層光合對不同灌水方式的響應

張向前,曹承富,喬玉強,李瑋,陳歡   

  1. 安徽省農業科學院作物研究所/安徽省農作物品質改良重點實驗室,合肥 230031
  • 收稿日期:2014-07-22 出版日期:2015-04-16 發布日期:2015-04-16
  • 通訊作者: 曹承富,Tel:0551-65160909;E-mail:[email protected] E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:張向前,Tel:0551-65160909;E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家科技支撐計劃(2013BAD07B08,2012BAD04B09,2011BAD16B06)、安徽省農業科學院院長青年創新基金(14B0202)

Response of Wheat Root Characteristics and Canopy Photosynthesis to Different Irrigation Methods in Lime Concretion Black Soil

ZHANG Xiang-qian, CAO Cheng-fu, QIAO Yu-qiang, LI Wei, CHEN Huan   

  1. Crops Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Crops Quality Improvement, Hefei 230031
  • Received:2014-07-22 Online:2015-04-16 Published:2015-04-16

摘要: 目的】明確小麥前期不同灌水方式對中后期根系性狀、冠層光合及產量影響的潛在機理,揭示小麥根系性狀與冠層光合間的關系。【方法】在人工玻璃防雨蓬下,設置以下10種灌水處理CK(生育前期水分充足)、W120d (苗后20 d灌水50 mm)、W240d (苗后40 d灌水50 mm)、W360d (苗后60 d灌水50 mm)、W480d (苗后80 d灌水50 mm)、W5100d (苗后100 d灌水50 mm)、W6120d (苗后120 d灌水50 mm)、W720d+60d (苗后20 d灌水25 mm+苗后60 d灌水25 mm)、W840d+80d (苗后40 d灌水25 mm + 苗后80 d灌水25 mm)和W960d+100d(苗后60 d灌水25 mm + 苗后100 d灌水25 mm)。研究前期不同灌水方式對小麥中后期根系性狀、冠層單葉面積、葉綠素密度、光合速率、光合有效輻射、葉綠素熒光參數和產量的影響。【結果】小麥生育前期適當延遲灌水日期有利于增加總根長、總表面積、總體積、平均直徑、總根尖數和總分叉數,其中W5100d與CK間的差異不顯著,但兩者顯著高于W120d和W6120d。CK孕穗期和開花期的倒1、倒2和倒3葉的單葉面積最大,但與W5100d差異不顯著,且總灌水量相同下灌水次數對冠層單葉面積的影響不顯著。生育前期灌1水下冠層葉綠素密度隨灌水日期的推遲呈先增加后下降的趨勢,并以W5100d最高,W120d最低。W5100d孕穗期、開花期和灌漿中期的冠層光合速率顯著高于CK,分別增加了7.5%、8.9% 和 8.9%,但冠層光合速率受灌水次數影響不明顯。灌1水下,W5100d孕穗期、開花期和灌漿中期的冠層光合有效輻射最高,分別比W120d和W6120d顯著增加了18.7%、9.7%、11.0% 和5.7%、4.9%、4.3%。W5100d孕穗期和開花期的葉綠素熒光參數FoFmFv/FmΦpsIIETR值最高,灌水次數對葉綠素熒光參數的影響不顯著。W5100d的產量和收獲指數與CK差異不顯著,兩指標分別比W120d和W6120d顯著增加了15.4%、22.1% 和3.2%、9.2%。【結論】生育前期過早和過晚灌水對小麥中后期根系生長、冠層光能利用及產量形成不利,適當延長前期灌水日期可獲得優于或相當于小麥生育前期水分充足處理的根系性狀、冠層光合及產量,灌水次數在灌水量相同下的效果不明顯。

關鍵詞: 普通小麥, 根系性狀, 葉綠素密度, 光合能力, 光合有效輻射, 葉綠素熒光

Abstract: 【Objective】The aim of this experiment was to clarify the potential mechanism of the effects of different irrigation methods which was irrigated at early growth stage of wheat on root characteristics, canopy photosynthesis and yield at middle and late growth stages, and to reveal the relationship between root characteristics and canopy photosynthesis. 【Method】 The experiment was conducted in an artificial glass rainproof shed, and the designed ten irrigation treatments in this experiment were CK(adequate water was supplied at early growth stage), W120d (20 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W240d (40 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W360d (60 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W480d (80 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W5100d (100 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W6120d (120 d after seedling emerged for 50 mm), W720d+60d (20 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+60 d after seedling emergency 25 mm), W840d+80d (40 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+80 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm) and W960d+100d (60 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm+100 d after seedling emerged for 25 mm). The effects of different irrigation methods which were irrigated at wheat early growth stage on root characteristics, canopy single leaf area, chlorophyll density, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and yield of wheat at middle and late growth stages were studied. 【Result】 To appropriate postpone the irrigation date at wheat early growth stage could help to increase total root length, total surface area, total volume, average diameter, total root tips and total root forks, and the difference between W5100d (irrigation was carried out 100 d after seedling emergence) and CK (adequate water was supplied at early growth stage) was insignificant, but they were significantly higher than that of W120d (irrigation was carried out 20 d after seedling emergence) and W6120d (irrigation was carried out 120 d after seedling emergence). The single leaf area of 1, 2 and 3 leaves counted from the top of CK was the highest at booting and flowering stages, but the difference between CK and W5100d was not significant, and the canopy of single leaf area was not significantly affected by irrigation times under the same irrigation amount. When one time of irrigation was made at early growth stage of wheat, the canopy chlorophyll density had a change trend of initial increase and then decrease with the postponement of irrigation date, and the values of W5100d were the highest, while of W120d were the lowest. The canopy photosynthetic rate of W5100d at booting stage, flowering stage and middle of filling stage was significantly higher than that of CK, and was increased by 7.5%, 8.9% and 8.9%, respectively, but the canopy photosynthetic rate was not significantly affected by irrigation times. Under the condition of one time of irrigation, W5100d had the highest values of canopy photosynthetically active radiation at booting stage, flowering stage and middle of filling stage, and when compared to W120d and W6120d , the values were significantly increased by 18.7%, 9.7%, 11.0% and 5.7%, 4.9%, 4.3%, respectively. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, ΦpsII and ETR of W5100d at booting and flowering stages were the highest, and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were not significantly affected by irrigation times. The differences in yield and harvest index between W5100d and CK were not significant, and when compared to W120d and W6120d they were increased by 15.4%, 22.1% and 3.2%, 9.2%, respectively.【Conclusion】Too early or too late irrigation at early growth stage had adverse impact on root growth, canopy light utilization and yield formation, while the irrigation date was appropriately postponed, the root characteristics, canopy photosynthesis and yield were better than or equivalent to the treatment of adequate water supply at wheat early growth stage, and the effects of irrigation times were not obvious under the same amount of irrigation water.

Key words: common wheat, root characteristics, chlorophyll density, photosynthetic capacity, photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll fluorescence

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