中國農業科學 ?? 2015, Vol. 48 ?? Issue (10): 1942-1954.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.10.007

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

氣溫變化背景下中國黃淮旱地冬小麥農藝性狀的變化特征 ——以山西臨汾為例

劉新月1,裴磊1,衛云宗1,張正斌2,高輝明2,徐萍2   

  1. 1山西省農業科學院小麥研究所,山西臨汾 041000
    2中國科學院遺傳與發育生物學研究所農業資源研究中心,石家莊 050021
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-27 出版日期:2015-05-16 發布日期:2015-05-16
  • 通訊作者: 張正斌,衛云宗;E-mail:[email protected][email protected] E-mail:[email protected]; [email protected]
  • 作者簡介:劉新月,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點基礎發展研究計劃(“973”計劃)(2010CB951501)、國家高技術研究發展計劃(“863”計劃)(2011AA100501)、山西省農業科學院育種工程(11yzgc054)

Agronomic Traits Variation Analysis of Huanghuai Dryland Winter Wheat under Temperature Change Background in China ——Taking Linfen, Shanxi as an Example

LIU Xin-yue1, PEI Lei1, WEI Yun-zong1, ZHANG Zheng-bin2, GAO Hui-ming2, XU Ping2   

  1. 1Institute of Wheat Research, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Linfen 041000, Shanxi
    2Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050021
  • Received:2014-09-27 Online:2015-05-16 Published:2015-05-16

摘要: 【目的】作物品種選育是在氣候變化背景下的自然選擇和人工選擇的結果。黃淮麥區是中國最大的麥區,在保障中國小麥生產和糧食安全中有重要作用。研究過去30年黃淮旱地冬小麥品種農藝性狀和氣溫要素變化規律,為旱地小麥育種適應未來氣候變化提供理論依據和技術支撐。【方法】利用近30年來國家黃淮旱地冬小麥區域試驗典型代表臨汾點的對照品種農藝性狀及該市的氣溫資料,研究對照品種農藝性狀、生育期平均氣溫和≥0℃積溫的變化規律,并進行農藝性狀和氣象要素的相關、多元回歸和通徑分析。【結果】小麥生育期的平均氣溫、≥0℃積溫、最低和最高溫度在逐年呈緩慢增加。小麥生育期平均氣溫平均每年上升0.05℃,≥0℃積溫平均每年上升21.9℃,且二者呈正相關關系。≥0℃積溫變化更能深入反映小麥生育期的溫度變化情況。小麥生育期最高氣溫平均每年上升0.02℃、最低氣溫平均每年上升0.16℃。播種至越冬前的平均氣溫和≥0℃積溫增加最多,營養生長階段平均氣溫和≥0℃積溫增加明顯,生殖生長階段平均氣溫增加較少且≥0℃積溫有下降趨勢。隨著氣候變暖,分蘗多的強冬性品種逐漸被分蘗適中的冬性和弱冬性品種替代。1986—1996年對照品種農藝性狀變化幅度不大,1997—2007年期間變化較大,2007—2014年變化幅度最大;這和小麥生育期平均氣溫變化趨勢基本相同。黃淮旱地對照品種千粒重和穗粒數逐年緩慢上升,分別每年平均增加1.57%和3.39%。有效穗數和產量及株高緩慢下降,分別每年平均下降0.16%和1.29%。產量與株高(0.684**)、有效穗(0.531**)和千粒重(0.541**)均極顯著正相關。株高、起身至拔節期≥0℃積溫和平均氣溫是決定小麥產量的3個主要因子,分別決定了小麥產量的46.73%、26.17和3.26%的變異。在黃淮旱地小麥適應氣候變化中,起身至拔節期≥0℃積溫和株高對產量貢獻較大且為正效應;起身至拔節期平均氣溫為負效應。【結論】氣候變暖對黃淮旱地冬小麥農藝性狀變化趨勢有較強的影響,選育株高和有效穗數適中、穗粒數較多、千粒重較大的中高產抗旱品種是黃淮旱地小麥適應未來氣候變化的育種改良方向。

關鍵詞: 黃淮, 旱地, 冬小麥, 農藝性狀, 氣候變化

Abstract: 【Objective】Crop variety breeding was result from nature and artificial selection under climate change background. Huanghuai wheat region is the largest wheat region in China, that plays an important role for ensure wheat production and food security in China. The changes of agronomic traits of winter wheat and temperature in Huanghuai dryland in the past 30 years were studied in order to provide a theoretical basis and technological support for dryland wheat breeding to adapt to climate changes in the future. 【Method】 The agronomic traits data of control varieties and temperature data of Linfen in Shanxi province in the past 30 years were analyzed. Linfen is the national representative Huanghuai dryland winter wheat regional test site. The regularity of the main temperature traits of Linfen city, such as the average temperature and over 0 accumulated temperature in winter wheat growth, and agronomic traits of control varieties change trends were analyzed. The relationship between agronomic traits and meteorological elements were also analyzed by correlation, multiple regression and path analysis. 【Result】 The average temperature,over 0 accumulated temperature,the highest and lowest temperature was increased slowly year by year in wheat growth period. In wheat growth period, the average temperature was increased average 0.05 per year, over 0 accumulated temperature was increased average 21.9per year,there was positive relationship between the average temperature and over 0 accumulated temperature. Over 0 accumulated temperature change can reflect temperature change in whole wheat growth period. The highest and lowest temperature was increased 0.02and 0.16per year respectively. The average temperature and over 0 accumulated temperature was increased markedly from sowing to before the winter, the average temperature and over 0 accumulated temperature was increased significantly at vegetative growth stage, but were increased lightly and had a downward trend at reproductive stage. With climate warming, strong winter variety with more tillers was replaced gradually by winter and weak winter variety with moderate tiller. Agronomic traits of control variety were changed not much from 1986 to 1996, and changed greatly from 1997 to 2007, and changed markedly from 2007 to 2014, this change trend consist with temperature change trend in wheat growth period. In evolution of agronomic traits of Huanghuai dryland control varieties, the thousand-kernel-weight and kernels per spike was increased average 1.57% and 3.39% per year respectively, but the effective ear numbers and plant height as well grain yield were decreased average slowly 0.16% and 1.29% per year respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between grain yield and plant height (0.684**), effective ear number (0.531**) and thousand-seed-weight (0.541**). There were 46.73%, 26.17% and 3.26% variation of grain yield was decided by three main factors such as plant height and over 0 accumulated temperature as well as the average temperature from standing to jointing stage respectively. In Huanghuai dryland wheat high-yield breeding evolution, the over 0 accumulated temperature from standing to jointing stage and plant height had a higher positive effect on grain yield, but the average temperature from standing to jointing stage had a negative effect on grain yield. 【Conclusion】 The climate warming had a strong impact on agronomic traits evolution in Huanghuai dryland winter wheat region, selecting new wheat varieties with agronomic traits of middle plant height, middle effective ears numbers, more kernels per spike, and high grain weight is the improvement direction of middle-high yield and drought-resistant varieties in Huanghuai dryland wheat region for adapting to climate change in the future.

Key words: Huanghuai, dryland, winter wheat, agronomic traits, climate change

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