供氮水平,小麥,產量,氮代謝,氮肥生理利用率," /> 3d和尾走势图500期

中國農業科學 ?? 2015, Vol. 48 ?? Issue (13): 2569-2579.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2015.13.009

? 土壤肥料·節水灌溉·農業生態環境 ? 上一篇    下一篇

不同供氮水平下小麥品種的氮效率差異及其氮代謝特征

王小純1,王曉航2,熊淑萍2,馬新明2,丁世杰2,吳克遠2,郭建彪2   

  1. 1河南農業大學生命科學學院/河南糧食作物協同創新中心,鄭州 450002
    2河南農業大學農學院/河南糧食作物協同創新中心/小麥玉米作物學 國家重點實驗室,鄭州 450002

Differences in Nitrogen Efficiency and Nitrogen Metabolism of Wheat Varieties Under Different Nitrogen Levels

WANG Xiao-chun1, WANG Xiao-hang2, XIONG Shu-ping2, MA Xin-ming2, DING Shi-jie2, WU Ke-yuan2, GUO Jian-biao2   

  1. 1College of Life Science, Henan Agricultural University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops, Zhengzhou 450002
    2 College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops/ National Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Zhengzhou 450002
  • Received:2014-12-17 Online:2015-07-01 Published:2015-07-01

摘要: 【目的】明確不同氮肥生理利用率小麥品種的氮代謝差異,為小麥高產及合理施肥提供理論依據,實現小麥節氮增產。【方法】采用大田試驗方法,從16個小麥品種中篩選出氮素利用效率差異顯著的低氮高效型小麥品種漯麥18、豫麥49-198和低氮低效型品種西農509、豫農202。然后進一步分析兩類品種在N0(CK),N120(120 kg·hm-2)和N225(225 kg·hm-2)3個供氮水平下各小麥品種的產量、葉片GS活性、可溶性蛋白、游離氨基酸、NO3-及全氮含量等氮代謝指標的差異。【結果】不同供氮水平下,氮肥生理利用率、產量、地上部及籽粒氮素積累量和葉片的GS活性、硝態氮含量、游離氨基酸含量、可溶性蛋白含量、全氮含量等均表現為低氮高效品種漯麥18、豫麥49-198顯著高于低氮低效品種西農509、豫農202。增加供氮量,兩類品種的產量、地上部及籽粒氮素積累量和葉片GS活性等氮代謝同化物指標均增加,而氮肥生理利用率降低。但兩類品種對供氮水平響應不同,與N0相比,增加供氮量,低氮低效品種西農509、豫農202地上部及籽粒氮積累量、葉片的GS活性、硝態氮含量、游離氨基酸含量、可溶性蛋白含量、全氮含量的增幅均高于低氮高效品種漯麥18、豫麥49-198,但是,產量的增幅卻顯著低于低氮高效品種;氮肥生理利用率的降幅則以低氮高效品種顯著高于低氮低效品種。【結論】低氮高效品種漯麥18、豫麥49-198相對于低氮低效品種西農509、豫農202具有更高的產量及氮素利用效率是因為其具有較高的GS活性,從而促進了植株對氮素的吸收與同化,使整個氮代謝過程利用效率提高,獲得更高產量。低氮高效品種耐低氮能力較強,增產潛力較大;低氮低效品種對氮肥反應較為敏感,但是其氮素分配利用能力較低。

關鍵詞: 供氮水平, 小麥, 產量, 氮代謝, 氮肥生理利用率

Abstract: 【Objective】This study aims to clarify the difference in nitrogen metabolism of wheat varieties with different nitrogen use efficiencies and to achieve optimization of nitrogen application and high-yield.【Method】In this study, Luomai 18 and Yumai 49-198(LH), Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL) were selected from 16 wheat varieties in yield conditions, and GS activity, soluble protein, free amino acids, NO3- and total nitrogen content of leaves were detected under nitrogen levels of N0 (0, CK), N120 (120 kg·hm-2) and N225 (225 kg·hm-2). 【Result】The results showed that GS activity, soluble protein, free amino acids, NO3- and total nitrogen content in leaf, N accumulation of aboveground and grain, yield and NPE of Luomai 18 and Yumai 49-198 (LH) were significantly higher than that of Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL). GS activity, soluble protein, free amino acids, NO3- and total nitrogen content in leaf, N accumulation of above ground and grain, yield increased with the increasing of nitrogen level, and the NPE reduced. But the response of the two types of varieties to nitrogen levels was different, compared with N0, the growing rate of GS activity, soluble protein, free amino acids, NO3- and total nitrogen content in leaf, N accumulation of above-ground of Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL) were significantly higher than that of Luomai 18 and Yumai 49-198(LH), however, the growing rate of yield of Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL) were significantly lower than that of Luomai 18 and Yumai 49-198(LH); the decreasing range of NPE of Luomai 18 and Yumai 49-198 (LH) was significantly higher than that of Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL). 【Conclusion】Compared with Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL), the reason that Luomai 18 and Yumai49-198 (LH) had higher yields and nitrogen use efficiency was that they had higher GS activities. Therefore the ability of nitrogen uptake and assimilation were improved, the nitrogen physiological efficiency in the whole nitrogen metabolism process was increased and better yields were obtained. Increasing the supply of nitrogen, yields of Luomai 18 and Yumai49-198 (LH) were significantly promoted. Luomai 18 and Yumai49-198 (LH) have a stronger tolerance to low nitrogen stress and the potential of yield is greater; Xinong 509 and Yunong 202 (LL) are more sensitive to nitrogen, but their ability in distribution of N is lower.

Key words: nitrogen supply levels, wheat, yield, nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen physiological efficiency

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