中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (4): 629-638.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.04.005

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

種植密度和植物生長調節劑對玉米莖稈性狀的影響及調控

徐田軍,呂天放,陳傳永,劉月娥,張譯天,劉秀芝,趙久然(),王榮煥()   

  1. 北京市農林科學院玉米研究中心/玉米DNA指紋及分子育種北京市重點實驗室,北京 100097
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-06 接受日期:2018-12-29 出版日期:2019-02-16 發布日期:2019-02-27
  • 通訊作者: 趙久然,王榮煥 E-mail:[email protected];[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:徐田軍,Tel:010-51502461;E-mail: [email protected]。|呂天放,Tel:010-51503149;E-mail: [email protected]。徐田軍和呂天放為同等貢獻作者。
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃(2016YFD0300106);北京市農林科學院青年科研基金(QNJJ201728);北京市農林科學院院級科技創新團隊建設項目(JNKYT201603);現代農業產業技術體系專項(CARS-02-11)

Effects of Plant Density and Plant Growth Regulator on Stalk Traits of Maize and Their Regulation

XU TianJun,Lü TianFang,CHEN ChuanYong,LIU YueE,ZHANG YiTian,LIU XiuZhi,ZHAO JiuRan(),WANG RongHuan()   

  1. Maize Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences/Beijing Key Laboratory of Maize DNA Fingerprinting and Molecular Breeding, Beijing 100097

摘要:

【目的】研究并明確種植密度和植物生長調節劑對玉米莖稈性狀的影響,可為合理密植、構建適宜群體結構、實現玉米高產抗逆栽培提供理論依據和技術支撐。【方法】以JK968為試驗材料,設置6.0×10 4株/hm 2(D1)、7.5×10 4株/hm 2(D2)和9.0×10 4株/hm 2(D3)3個密度水平,以及乙烯利矮壯素復配劑(EC)和噴施清水為對照(CK)2個處理,研究種植密度對玉米莖稈性狀的影響以及莖稈性狀對化學調控的響應。 【結果】(1)倒伏率隨種植密度增加呈升高趨勢,其中在D1密度條件下,JK968的倒伏率分別比D2和D3低69.1%和83.4%;EC處理可顯著降低倒伏率,在D1、D2和D3密度條件下分別比對照降低了5.0%、19.8%和41.0%。(2)株高、穗位高、穗位系數和重心高度在不同種植密度和化控處理間均存在極顯著差異,具體表現為隨種植密度增加呈升高趨勢;EC處理后顯著降低了地上部第6節以下的節間長度,增加了地上部第7節以上的節間長度,株高和穗位系數略降低,而穗位高和重心高度顯著降低。(3)莖稈抗折力和莖稈外皮穿刺強度在不同處理間均存在極顯著差異。大喇叭口期至成熟期呈先升高后降低趨勢,在乳熟期達最大值。隨種植密度增加,地上部第3、4和5節莖稈抗折力和莖稈外皮穿刺強度呈降低趨勢;不同節間莖稈抗折力和莖稈外皮穿刺強度表現為地上部第3節>第4節>第5節;EC處理后顯著增加了地上部第3、4和5節莖稈抗折力和莖稈外皮穿刺強度。(4)穗粒數和百粒重隨種植密度增加呈降低趨勢;EC處理后,穗粒數、百粒重和產量均較對照增加。在D1、D2和D3密度條件下,EC處理后產量分別較對照高438.8 kg·hm -2、1041.3 kg·hm -2和3376.5 kg·hm -2,增幅分別為3.6%、8.2%和27.8%。 【結論】隨種植密度增加,玉米株高增加、重心高度上移、基部節間伸長、基部節間充實度和抗折力下降。EC處理顯著降低了地上部第6節以下的節間長度,顯著增加了地上部第7節以上的節間長度,株高略降低,重心高度和穗位高顯著降低,基部節間長度縮短、基部節間充實度提高,從而提高了莖稈的抗倒伏能力。由此可見,在風災倒伏頻發地區以及種植密度過大等倒伏風險較大條件下,噴施植物生長調節劑可顯著增加玉米莖稈的抗折力和莖稈外皮穿刺強度,顯著降低穗位高、重心高度和倒伏率,有利于玉米高產穩產。

關鍵詞: 玉米, 莖稈性狀, 種植密度, 植物生長調節劑

Abstract:

【Objective】Studying and defining the effects of planting density and plant growth regulator on maize stalk traits can provide theoretical basis and technical support for rational close planting, optimizing suitable population structure and realizing high yield of maize. 【Method】 JK968 was used as material. The experiment was conducted to study the effects of planting density and plant growth regulator on maize stalk traits with three planting density treatments, 6.0×10 4 plant/hm 2 (D1), 7.5×10 4plant/hm 2 (D2) and 9.0×10 4plant/hm 2 (D3), and plant growth regulator treatment (ethylene and chloramphenicol compounds, CK). 【Result】 (1) With the increase of planting density, the lodging rate was increased. In the condition of D1 density, the lodging rate of JK968 was 69.1% and 83.4% lower than that of D2 and D3 treatments, respectively. Among them, the lodging rate in D3 was 22.6% and 47.8% higher than D2 and D1, respectively. The ethylene and chloramphenicol (EC) treatment significantly reduced the lodging rate, and the lodging rate D1, D2 and D3 after EC treatment decreased 5.0%, 19.8% and 41.0% than that of the control, respectively. (2) Plant height, ear height, ear position coefficient and center of gravity height were significant different among three plant densities and EC treatment, which showed an increasing trend with the increase of planting density. EC treatment significantly reduced the internodes length below the 6th node of the shoot, increased the internodes length above the 7th node of the shoot. Compared with the control, the height and the ear position coefficient were decreased slightly after EC treatment, while the ear height and gravity center height were significantly decreased. (3) There were significant differences in the bending strength and puncture strength of stem epidermis between different treatments. The stem bending force and rind penetration strength were first increased and then decreased from booting stage to mature stage and reached the maximum value in milk stage. The stem bending force and rind penetration strength of 3rd, 4th and 5th internodes aboveground were significantly different with the increase of planting density and significantly increased after EC treatment. The stem bending force and rind penetration strength of different internodes showed that 3rd > 4th > 5th. (4) The number of grains per panicle and 100-grain weight was significantly decreased with the increase of planting density. After EC treatment, the number of grains per panicle, 100-grain weight and yield increased compared with the control. Under the D1, D2 and D3, the yield of EC treated were 438.8 kg·hm -2, 1 041.3 kg·hm -2 and 3 376.5 kg·hm -2 higher than those of CK, with an increase of 3.6%, 8.2% and 27.8%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 With the increase of planting density, the plant height and height of center of gravity were increased, the basal internodes were belonged, the basal internodes fullness and bending resistance were decreased. EC treatment significantly reduced the internodes length below the 6th node of shoot, significantly increased the internodes length above the 7th node of shoot, slightly reduced plant height, significantly reduced the height of center of gravity and ear height, shortened the length of base internodes and increased the filling degree of base internodes, thus improving the lodging resistance of stem. Therefore, spraying plant growth regulators can significantly increase the bending resistance of maize stalks and the puncture strength of stalk epidermis, significantly reduce ear height, height of center of gravity and lodging rate, which is beneficial to high and stable yield of maize under the conditions of high lodging risk such as frequent wind disasters and high planting density.

Key words: maize, stem characters, planting density, plant growth regulator

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