中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (5): 849-859.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.05.007

? 土壤肥料·節水灌溉·農業生態環境 ? 上一篇    下一篇

江蘇省水稻減肥增產的潛力與機制分析

郭俊杰,柴以瀟,李玲,高麗敏,謝凱柳,凌寧,郭世偉()   

  1. 南京農業大學資源與環境科學學院/江蘇省固體有機廢棄物資源化研究重點實驗室,南京210095
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-06 接受日期:2018-12-17 出版日期:2019-03-01 發布日期:2019-03-12
  • 通訊作者: 郭世偉 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:郭俊杰,E-mail: [email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家公益性行業科研專項(201503122);江蘇省農業科技自主創新資金項目(CX161001)

The Potential and Related Mechanisms of Increasing Rice Yield by Reducing Chemical Nitrogen Application in Jiangsu Province

GUO JunJie,CHAI YiXiao,LI Ling,GAO LiMin,XIE KaiLiu,LING Ning,GUO ShiWei()   

  1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University/Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Nanjing 210095
  • Received:2018-07-06 Accepted:2018-12-17 Online:2019-03-01 Published:2019-03-12
  • Contact: ShiWei GUO E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】 明確當前江蘇省水稻種植區域的施肥現狀與問題,定量研究化學氮肥減量對水稻產量形成和氮素吸收利用的影響,以評估氮肥減量優化在水稻生產中的適用性。【方法】 以江蘇省為研究對象,通過對1 502家農戶進行調查,分析水稻施氮量(化肥氮)、產量與氮效率(氮肥偏生產力)現狀。同時結合文獻檢索獲得的 49篇大田試驗文獻共 195 組試驗數據,采用整合分析方法(Meta-analysis),定量分析氮肥減量對水稻產量形成和氮素吸收利用的影響特征。【結果】 農戶調研數據表明,江蘇省農戶水稻生產的平均產量、氮肥用量和氮肥偏生產力分別為8 273 kg·hm -2、358.10 kg·hm -2和 25.12 kg·kg -1。文獻數據整合分析表明,在江蘇地區,與傳統/常規施氮相比,氮肥減量顯著降低植株氮素吸收量(-5.8%—-14.0%),在一定程度上抑制了穗數的產生(-2.09%—-5.46%),同時通過增加穗粒數(3.96%—6.79%)、結實率(2.00%—3.88%)以及千粒重(0.89%—2.10%)來提高水稻產量(2.8%—5.7%)和氮肥偏生產力(52.4%—77.0%)。氮肥減量優化下,秈稻的產量與氮效率的提升效果優于粳稻。減量方式以氮肥減量后進行合理養分運籌同時增施有機肥(秸稈)對水稻增產增效的效果最顯著。 減量比例以≤25%最佳。高基礎地力條件下更有利于在保證水稻產量的前提下實現氮肥減量。綜合分析得出,江蘇省水稻的氮肥減量可以通過調控運籌與增施有機肥實現,其推薦減量空間為31%,其中基、蘗肥是其主要的減量方向。 【結論】 江蘇省水稻化學氮肥減量可行,基肥與分蘗肥為主要的減量方向。將氮肥減量控制在31%以內,同時進行優化管理,能夠合理調控水稻各產量構成因素,實現水稻增產增效。

關鍵詞: 水稻, 化學氮肥減量, 產量及產量構成, 氮素吸收與利用, 農戶調研, 整合分析

Abstract:

:【Objective】To evaluate the applicability of nitrogen fertilizer reduction and optimization for rice productivity in Jiangsu Province, the current situations and existed problems of fertilizer application were studied, and the effects of reducing nitrogen application on rice yield formation, nitrogen uptake and utilization were quantified.【Method】The current situations of rice nitrogen application rate (chemical nitrogen), grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (PFPN, Partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen) were conducted by 1 502 farmer surveys in Jiangsu Province. Moreover, the effect of nitrogen reduction on rice productivity was evaluated by using Meta-analysis with 195 observations from 49 previous published studies. 【Result】The data of farmer practices survey showed that the averaged rice yield, nitrogen application rate and PFPN in Jiangsu Province were 8 273 kg·hm -2, 358.10 kg·hm -2 and 25.12 kg·kg -1, respectively. Meta-analysis showed that after reducing the N rate, the yield and PFPN increased by 2.8%-5.7% and 52.4%-77.0%, respectively, compared with traditional/conventional nitrogen application in Jiangsu province. The increased rice yield and PFPN were attributed to the regulated nitrogen uptake (-5.8%- -14.0%), which reducing the rice panicle number by 2.09%-5.46%, while increasing the grains per panicle, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight by 3.96%-6.79%, 2.00%-3.88% and 0.89%-2.10%, respectively. The enhancing effects of reducing nitrogen application on rice yield and nitrogen efficiency in indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice. Reducing the nitrogen application based on reasonable nutrient management combined with organic matter (straw) input had the best effects (high yield and high nutrient efficiency). Present study also showed that the best reduction proportion of nitrogen application was supposed to lower than 25%. Moreover, the soils with high fertility were more conducive to achieve nitrogen fertilizer reduction with ensured rice yield. Taken together, the nitrogen reduction of rice in Jiangsu province could be realized by adjusting the nitrogen management and applying organic fertilizer. The recommended reduction space of nitrogen fertilizer was 31%, in which the basal and tillering fertilizers were the main decreasing direction. 【Conclusion】The reduction of chemical nitrogen fertilizer application of rice in Jiangsu province could be achieved while the basal fertilizer and tillering fertilizer should be most considered. The yield components of rice could be controlled reasonably, and the yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice could be improved by reducing nitrogen application when controlling the reduction of nitrogen fertilizer within 31% and combined with optimizing management.

Key words: rice, reducing chemical nitrogen application, yield and yield component, nitrogen uptake and utilization, farmer practices survey, Meta-analysis

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