中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (6): 981-996.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.06.003

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

機插栽培秈雜交稻的日產量及與株型的關系

何連華1,陳多1,張馳1,田青蘭1,吳振元1,李秋萍1,鐘曉媛1,鄧飛1,胡劍鋒1,凌俊英2,任萬軍1()   

  1. 1 四川農業大學/農業部西南作物生理生態與耕作重點實驗室,四川溫江 611130
    2 大邑縣農村發展服務中心,四川大邑 611330
  • 收稿日期:2018-11-14 接受日期:2019-01-15 出版日期:2019-03-16 發布日期:2019-03-22
  • 通訊作者: 任萬軍 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:何連華,E-mail: [email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家糧食豐產增效科技創新專項(2016YFD0300506);國家糧食豐產增效科技創新專項(2017YFD0301702);四川省育種攻關項目(2016NYZ0051)

The Daily Yield of Medium Hybrid Rice in Machine Transplanting and Its Relationship with Plant Type

HE LianHua1,CHEN Duo1,ZHANG Chi1,TIAN QingLan1,WU ZhenYuan1,LI QiuPing1,ZHONG XiaoYuan1,DENG Fei1,HU JianFeng1,LING JunYing2,REN WanJun1()   

  1. 1 Sichuan Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan
    2 Dayi County Rural Development Service Center, Dayi 611330, Sichuan
  • Received:2018-11-14 Accepted:2019-01-15 Online:2019-03-16 Published:2019-03-22
  • Contact: WanJun REN E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】探討日產量作為中秈雜交稻機插栽培品種篩選指標的可行性,系統研究中秈雜交稻品種株型特征及與日產量的關系,篩選出適宜四川地區機插栽培的高產品種,以期為中秈雜交稻機插高產栽培和育種工作提供理論和實踐依據。【方法】 以34個中秈雜交稻品種為材料,采用單因素隨機區組田間試驗收集數據,通過聚類分析、方差分析等方法對機插栽培下中秈雜交稻品種的株型特征及日產量進行研究。【結果】(1)機插栽培不同水稻品種全生育期、日產量及產量差異較大,以2017年為例,供試品種全生育期為141—168 d,以154—164 d的品種為主,占供試品種的82.4%;產量變幅為10 261.05—13 099.34 kg·hm -2,天優華占產量最高,宜香3728最低,產量在11 110.90—12 827.15 kg·hm -2范圍內的品種占供試品種的76.5%;供試品種的日產量主要分布在67—80 kg·hm -2·d -1,占供試品種的82.4%,天優華占、繁優609和晶兩優534日產量較高,均超過80 kg·hm -2·d -1,但僅占供試品種的8.8%。(2)聚類分析顯示,高日產量類型品種占總數的29.4%;中日產量類型占總數的38.2%;低日產量類型占總數的32.4%。(3)與低日產量類型品種相比,高日產量類型品種具有較高的每穗粒數和群體穎花量,且有效穗充足,結實率較高,故其產量較高。(4)不同類型品種株型特征差異較大,相關分析表明株高、稈長、N3節間長、N4節間長、穗長與日產量呈顯著或極顯著負相關,著粒密度與日產量呈極顯著正相關。【結論】 日產量可以作為中秈雜交稻機插栽培品種篩選的重要指標之一,日產量較高的品種,其機插適應性較強。株高、稈長適宜,第三、四節間長較短,著粒密度高是高日產量品種的重要株型特征。此外,適宜四川地區機插的中秈雜交稻品種還具有全生育期適中、穗足粒多、群體穎花量和結實率高的基本特征。綜合來看,天優華占、繁優609、晶兩優534、Y兩優1號、C兩優華占及F優498是適宜在四川地區機插種植的品種。

關鍵詞: 水稻, 機插, 日產量, 株型

Abstract:

【Objective】To explore the feasibility of daily yield as a screening of medium-indica hybrid rice varieties by machine transplanted, systematically study the plant type characteristics of medium-indica hybrid rice varieties and their relationship with daily yield, and screen out high-yield varieties suitable for machine-planting in Sichuan, the theory and practice basis were provided for the high-yield cultivation and breeding of medium-indica hybrid rice.【Method】The 34 planting hybrid rice varieties were used as materials, and the data were collected by single-factor randomized block field experiment, and then the plant type and daily yield of the hybrid rice varieties under machine transplanting were studied by cluster analysis and analysis of variance analysis. 【Result】(1)The whole rice growth period, daily yield and yield of different varieties of machine-planting cultivation were different. The whole growth period of the tested rice varieties was 141-168 d, mainly 154-164 d, accounting for 82.4% of the tested varieties; The yield variation was 10 261.05 -13 099.34 kg·hm -2, of which Tianyouhuazhan accounted for the highest yield, Yixiang 3728 was the lowest, the yield in the range of 11 110.90-12 827.15 kg ·hm -2 accounted for 76.5% of the tested varieties; The daily yield of the tested varieties was mainly distributed in the range of 67-80 kg·hm -2·d -1, accounting for 82.4% of the tested varieties. The daily yields of Tianyouhuazhan, Fanyou 609 and Jingliangyou 534 were higher than 80 kg·hm -2·d -1, but only 8.8% of the tested varieties. (2) Cluster analysis showed that 29.4% of the total varieties were high-daily yield, 38.2% were middle-daily yield and 32.4% were low-daily yield. (3) Compared with the low-yield varieties, the high-yield varieties had higher grain per panicle and group spikes, and the effective panicles were sufficient, and the seed setting rate was higher, so the yield was higher. (4) There were significant differences in plant type characteristics of different varieties. Correlation analysis showed that plant height, stalk length, N3 internode length, N4 internode length, panicle length and daily yield were significantly or significantly negative correlation, grain density was significantly positively correlated with daily yield.【Conclusion】The daily yield could be used as one of the important indicators for screening of Chinese cultivars for hybrid rice cultivars, and the varieties with higher daily yields had stronger adaptability. Plant height and stalk length were suitable, and the third and fourth internode lengths were short, and high grain density was an important plant type characteristic of high daily yield varieties. In addition, the medium-indica hybrid rice varieties suitable for machine transplanting in Sichuan also had the basic characteristics of moderate growth period, more spikelets, higher group spikelets and higher seed setting rate. On the whole, Tianyouhuazhan, Fanyou 609, Jingliangyou 534, Y Liangyou 1, C Liangyouhuazhan and F You 498 were suitable for planting in Sichuan.

Key words: rice, mechanical transplanting, daily yield, plant type

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