中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (8): 1355-1367.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.08.006

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

夏玉米產量與光溫生產效率差異分析——以山東省為例

王洪章,劉鵬(),董樹亭,張吉旺,趙斌,任佰朝   

  1. 山東農業大學農學院/作物生物學國家重點實驗室,山東泰安 271018
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-11 接受日期:2019-01-31 出版日期:2019-04-16 發布日期:2019-04-26
  • 通訊作者: 劉鵬 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:王洪章,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃(2016YFD0300106);國家自然科學基金(31071358);國家自然科學基金(31301274);山東省現代農業產業技術體系項目(SDAIT02-08)

Analysis of Gap Between Yield and Radiation Production Efficiency and Temperature Production Efficiency in Summer Maize: Taking Shandong Province as an Example

WANG HongZhang,LIU Peng(),DONG ShuTing,ZHANG JiWang,ZHAO Bin,REN BaiZhao   

  1. College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Taian 271018, Shandong
  • Received:2018-12-11 Accepted:2019-01-31 Online:2019-04-16 Published:2019-04-26
  • Contact: Peng LIU E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】研究夏玉米各產量層次之間的物質生產及資源利用能力,量化山東省夏玉米籽粒產量與光、溫資源利用效率的差異,明確農業生產條件和栽培措施對產量差及效率差的貢獻率,探討產量差、效率差協同縮減的可能性,為縮小夏玉米產量差距、提升資源利用效率提供理論依據。【方法】本試驗于2017—2018年在山東省泰安、淄博和煙臺3市進行,針對山東夏玉米生產調研出的問題,在同一地塊采用綜合管理模式,從合理密植、優化肥水、增產增效的角度設計了4種管理模式,模擬超高產水平(SH)、高產高效水平(HH)、農戶水平(FP)和基礎產量水平(CK)4個產量層次,定量分析不同產量層次之間的產量差及光溫資源生產效率差。結合光溫生產潛力分析和作物產量性能分析,探究產量差和效率差的影響因素及縮差增效途徑。【結果】當前山東省夏玉米光溫潛力與超高產水平、超高產水平與高產高效水平、高產高效水平與農戶生產水平、農戶生產水平與基礎產量水平之間的產量差分別為5.85、0.82、1.90、1.35 t·hm -2,光能生產效率差分別為1.74、0.15、0.28、0.45 g·MJ -1,溫度生產效率差分別為1.09、0.10、0.17、0.28 kg·hm -2·℃ -1;當前不可控因素對產量差和光、溫生產效率差的貢獻率分別為58.49%和66.09%,可控因素對產量差和光、溫生產效率差的貢獻率分別為41.51%和33.91%,地域差異因素對產量差、光能生產效率差和溫度生產效率差的貢獻率分別為1.98%、2.49%和3.24%;產量差與光溫資源生產效率差之間有顯著相關性;SH和HH處理較FP處理和CK有較高的地上部生物量、生育期平均葉面積指數(MLAI)和冠層光能截獲率。 【結論】當前山東省夏玉米農戶生產水平與光溫潛力水平之間的產量差、光能生產效率差、溫度生產效率差分別為8.56 t·hm -2、2.17 g·MJ -1、1.35 kg·hm -2·℃ -1,產量與光、溫資源利用效率仍有較大的提升空間。玉米籽粒產量差和光、溫資源利用效率差顯著相關,在現有農戶管理措施的基礎上,應用高產高效管理模式(種植密度增加1.5×10 4株·hm -2,適當增加施肥量,將一次性施肥改為于播種期、大喇叭口期、開花期和乳熟期采用水肥一體化方式分次施肥)能夠縮小產量差距1.90 t·hm -2,提高光、溫資源生產效率14.74%和14.41%,是協同縮差增效的有效技術途徑。

關鍵詞: 夏玉米, 產量, 光溫生產效率, 差距

Abstract:

【Objective】 In the present study, the biomass production and resource availability among yield levels were studied to quantify the gap of yield, radiation production efficiency and temperature production efficiency of summer maize in Shandong province. This study aimed to clarify the contribution rate of agricultural production conditions and cultivation measures to yield gap and efficiency gap, and to explore the possibility of synergistic narrow the yield gap and efficiency gap, so as to provide a theoretical basis for closing yield gap and improving resource utilization efficiency. 【Method】 The experiment was conducted in Taian, Zibo and Yantai in Shandong province from 2017 to 2018. Based on the investigation of summer maize production in Shandong province, four management models were designed in consideration of appropriate increase of plant density, optimization of fertilizer and water, increase of yield and efficiency with the same integrated management. The four yield levels, including super high yield (SH), high yield and high efficiency (HH), farmer level (FP) and basic production level (CK), were simulated. And the gap of yield, radiation production efficiency and temperature production efficiency of different yield levels were analyzed. With the integrative analysis of radiation-temperature production potential and crop yield performance, the factors affecting gap of yield and efficiency and the way closing yield gap and increasing efficiency were explored in the present study. 【Result】 At present, the yield gap between radiation temperature potential level and super high yield level, super high yield level and high yield high efficiency level, high yield and high efficiency level and farmer production level, farmer production level and basic production level of summer maize in Shandong province were 5.85, 0.82, 1.90 and 1.35 t·hm -2, respectively; The radiation production efficiency gap were 1.74, 0.15, 0.28 and 0.45 g·MJ -1, respectively; and the temperature production efficiency gap were 1.09, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.28 kg·hm -2·℃ -1, respectively. The current uncontrollable factors contributed 58.49% to yield gap, and contributed 66.09% to light and temperature production efficiency. And geographical difference factors contributed 1.98% to yield gap, contributed 2.49% to radiation production efficiency, and contributed 3.24% to temperature production efficiency. There was a significant correlation between the yield gap and the production efficiency gap. SH and HH had higher biomass, mean leaf area index (MLAI) and canopy light energy interception rate than FP and CK. 【Conclusion】 At present, the gap of yield, the radiation production efficiency, and the temperature production efficiency between the farmer production level and the radiation temperature potential level of summer maize in Shandong province were 8.56 t·hm -2, 2.17 g·MJ -1, and 1.35 kg·hm -2·℃ -1, respectively, so there was room for improvement in yield and utilization efficiency of radiation and temperature resources. There was a significant correlation between the yield gap and the production efficiency gap, on the basis of existing farmer management measures, the application of high-yield and high-efficiency management mode (increase the plant density of 15 000 plant·hm -2, and increasing the amount of fertilization appropriately, changing the one-time fertilization into the sub-fertilization mode with water and fertilizer integration during the stage of sowing, spike formation, flowering, and milking) could narrow the yield gap by 1.90 t·hm -2and increase the production efficiency of radiation and temperature resources by 14.74% and 14.41%, respectively, which was an effective technical way to synergistic close yield gap and increase efficiency.

Key words: summer maize, yield, radiation and temperature production efficiency, gap

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