中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (11): 1918-1929.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.11.007

? 土壤肥料·節水灌溉·農業生態環境 ? 上一篇    下一篇

基于Meta分析中國水稻產量對施肥的響應特征

韓天富1,馬常寶2,黃晶1,3,柳開樓1,4,薛彥東2,李冬初1,3,劉立生1,3,張璐1,3,劉淑軍1,3,張會民1,3()   

  1. 1 中國農業科學院農業資源與農業區劃研究所/耕地培育技術國家工程實驗室,北京 100081
    2 農業農村部耕地質量監測保護中心,北京100125
    3 中國農業科學院衡陽紅壤實驗站/祁陽農田生態系統國家野外試驗站,湖南祁陽 426182
    4 江西省紅壤研究所/國家紅壤改良工程技術研究中心,南昌330046
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-04 接受日期:2019-01-18 出版日期:2019-06-01 發布日期:2019-06-11
  • 通訊作者: 張會民 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:韓天富,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃"糧食豐產增效科技創新"重點專項(2016YFD0300901);國家自然科學基金(41671301);國家自然科學基金(41371293)

Variation in Rice Yield Response to Fertilization in China: Meta-analysis

HAN TianFu1,MA ChangBao2,HUANG Jing1,3,LIU KaiLou1,4,XUE YanDong2,LI DongChu1,3,LIU LiSheng1,3,ZHANG Lu1,3,LIU ShuJun1,3,ZHANG HuiMin1,3()   

  1. 1 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing 100081
    2 Center of Arable Land Quality Monitoring and Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125
    3 Red Soil Experimental Station of CAAS in Hengyang/National Observation and Research Station of Farmland Ecosystem in Qiyang, Qiyang 426182, Hunan
    4 Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil/ National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement, Nanchang 330046
  • Received:2018-12-04 Accepted:2019-01-18 Online:2019-06-01 Published:2019-06-11
  • Contact: HuiMin ZHANG E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

目的 定量分析近30年施肥對中國水稻產量的綜合效應和影響機制,為水稻種植區域肥料的科學施用提供依據。方法 以全國水稻土長期監測點為平臺,將相應的監測數據按照種植區域、試驗時間、種植制度、作物類型、施肥類型、土壤質地、土壤pH、土壤有機質含量、土壤全氮含量、土壤有效磷含量、土壤速效鉀含量、土壤緩效鉀含量進行分組,以不施肥處理作為對照,利用Meta-analysis方法探究施肥對水稻產量的綜合效應及其影響因素。結果 近10年(2008—2017)以來,無論施肥與否,水稻產量均顯著高于1988—1997和1998—2007年對應的水稻產量。與不施肥相比,施肥顯著提高水稻產量,其提高幅度平均為80.8%。在西南地區施肥對水稻產量的提高幅度最高(98.5%),顯著高于華北地區(70.3%)。不同試驗時間下,施肥比不施肥處理在1988—1997年對水稻產量提高的幅度(99.1%)高于1998—2007年(84.2%)和 2008-2017年(78.1%)。不同種植制度下,施肥較不施肥處理能顯著提高一年三熟水稻產量(92.0%),且提高幅度均高于一年一熟(76.2%)和一年兩熟(81.9%)。與不施肥相比,雙季稻施肥對水稻產量的提高幅度(85.9%)高于單季稻區(75.9%)和水稻-其他作物(79.5%)。與不施肥相比,有機肥與無機肥配合施用對水稻產量提高幅度(88.3%)高于化肥單施處理(76.6%)。施肥較不施肥處理能顯著提高黏質土壤水稻產量(92.0%),提高幅度顯著高于砂質土壤(58.0%)和壤質土壤(77.5%)。隨著土壤有機質和有效磷含量的增加,施肥較不施肥處理水稻產量提高的幅度呈降低趨勢。在較高的土壤pH(>7.5)、較低土壤全氮(<1.5 g·kg -1)和緩效鉀(<150 mg·kg -1)情況下,施肥較不施肥處理水稻產量提高的幅度較高。隨機森林分析結果表明:施肥對水稻產量提高幅度主要受水稻種植區域、土壤全氮和種植制度的影響。此外,肥料的農學效率與施肥對水稻產量增產幅度呈極顯著正相關。結論 雖然當前施肥對水稻產量增加的趨勢在降低,但是適量的肥料投入(尤其是西南地區)是提高和維持水稻高產的重要措施,尤其是有機肥與無機肥配合施用增產效果更加顯著。同時,在種植制度的基礎上,各水稻種植區域應結合土壤質地、土壤氮素和鉀素等方面作為肥料投入的主要依據。

關鍵詞: 施肥, 水稻產量, Meta-analysis, 響應比, 農學效率

Abstract:

【Objective】 A meta study was conducted to investigate the comprehensive effect of fertilization on rice yield in Chinese paddy soils during the past 30 years, and to provide a theoretical basis for the scientific correct application of fertilizers in rice cultivation areas. 【Method】 Based on the long-term paddy soil monitoring sites from Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, we conducted meta-analysis to investigate the rice yield response to no fertilization versus fertilization in different agro-climatic regions. 【Result】 Rice yield in the past 10 years (2008-2017) was significantly higher than the corresponding rice yield in 1988-1997 and 1998-2007, regardless of fertilization. The increase of rice yield with fertilization in southwest of China was by 98.5%, which was significantly higher than that of in north of China (70.3%). Fertilization increased rice yield by 99.1%, 84.2% and 78.1% during 1988-1997, 1998-2007 and 2008-2017, respectively. For the cropping system, the increase of rice yield under triple cropping system (92.0%) was significantly higher than that under single cropping system (76.2%) and double cropping system (81.9%). Fertilization increased rice yield by 85.9% under double rice cropping system, by 75.9% under single cropping system, and by 79.5% under other cropping system. Compared with no fertilizer, chemical plus organic fertilizer application increased rice yield by 88.3%, which was higher than that of single chemical fertilizer application (76.6%). Fertilization significantly increased rice yield in clay soil by 92.0%, compared with no fertilization, which significantly higher than that in sandy soil (58.0%) and loam soil (77.5%). With the increase of soil organic matter and available phosphorus, the increasing trend of fertilization on rice yield was decreased compared with no fertilization. Under higher soil pH (>7.5) and lower soil total nitrogen (<1.5 g·kg -1) and slow available potassium (<150 mg·kg -1), the rice yield increasing was more than that of corresponding the rest of level. Random forest analysis showed that the region, soil total nitrogen and cropping system had greater impact on the response ratio (RR) of rice yield. In addition, the agronomic efficiency of fertilizer was positively correlated with rice yield RR. 【Conclusion】 Although the trend of increasing rice yield by fertilization was decreasing at present, but combined appropriate chemical plus organic fertilizer, especially in southwest of China, were important measures to improve and maintain high rice yield. Base on the cropping system, combining soil texture, soil nitrogen and potassium content should be the main basis for fertilizer input in different rice cultivation areas.

Key words: fertilization, rice yield, Meta-analysis, response ratio, agronomic efficiency

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