中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (12): 2042-2055.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.12.003

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

土壤耕作技術對小麥出苗質量、根系功能及粒重的影響

申冠宇1,楊習文1,周蘇玫1,梅晶晶1,陳旭1,彭宏揚1,蔣向2(),賀德先1()   

  1. 1 河南農業大學農學院/河南糧食作物協同創新中心/省部共建小麥玉米作物學國家重點實驗室,鄭州450002
    2 河南省農業技術推廣總站,鄭州 450002
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-10 接受日期:2019-03-18 出版日期:2019-06-16 發布日期:2019-06-22
  • 通訊作者: 蔣向,賀德先 E-mail:[email protected];[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:申冠宇,E-mail: [email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃“糧食豐產增效科技創新”重點專項(2018YFD0300701)

Impacts of Soil Tillage Techniques on Seedling Quality, Root Function and Grain Weight in Wheat

SHEN GuanYu1,YANG XiWen1,ZHOU SuMei1,MEI JingJing1,CHEN Xu1,PENG HongYang1,JIANG Xiang2(),HE DeXian1()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops/State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Zhengzhou 450002
    2 Henan Extension Station for Agricultural Techniques, Zhengzhou 450002

摘要:

【目的】 針對黃淮平原農作區一年兩熟條件下玉米秸稈還田嚴重影響麥苗質量的突出問題,探索適宜的土壤耕作技術以提高小麥幼苗質量,最終提高產量。【方法】 2016—2018年連續2年,在河南省新鄭市辛店鎮黃崗村開展田間試驗。采用隨機區組設計,將翻耕、耙、鎮壓3個因素組合配套實施8個處理,分別為深翻耕+旋耕(DT+RT;DT:30 cm,RT:15 cm)、深翻耕+耙(DT+H)、深翻耕+旋耕+鎮壓(DT+RT+C)、深翻耕+耙+鎮壓(DT+H+C)、旋耕(RT)、旋耕+耙(RT+H)、旋耕+鎮壓(RT+C)、旋耕+耙+鎮壓(RT+H+C)。對小麥出苗率及幼苗質量進行調查,并在越冬期、返青期、拔節期、抽穗期、灌漿期、蠟熟期對根系進行調查分析,分別在灌漿期對小麥籽粒性狀、收獲后對小麥產量及其構成因素進行調查分析。【結果】 小麥播種后20 d,不同土壤耕作處理間幼苗質量差異顯著。旋耕后出苗整齊度高于深翻耕,而深翻耕后出苗率、基本苗數和株高高于旋耕。相同耕、鎮壓因素處理下,耙后出苗率增幅為1.0%—5.7%,相同耕、耙因素處理下,鎮壓后出苗率增幅為0.06%—8.3%;同時深翻耕后,極少出現缺苗、斷壟,RT處理缺苗、斷壟的累計長度最高,兩年平均為55 cm。從越冬期到蠟熟期,不同土壤耕作處理的根系活力均呈現“高-低-高-低”的變化趨勢,DT+H+C處理最高;在越冬期和拔節期,鎮壓和耙處理后,與無鎮壓、耙處理相比,根系活力均提高。單株次生根數目在抽穗期達到最大,DT+H+C處理最高,兩年最高值分別為45.2條與40.2條;與無耙處理相比,耙處理后,單株次生根數目最高增加14.8%,與無鎮壓處理相比,鎮壓處理后,單株次生根數目最高增加12.2%。花后5—10 d,DT+H+C和RT+H+C處理的籽粒灌漿速率增長幅度顯著高于其他處理,開花后20 d達到峰值,其中DT+H+C處理籽粒灌漿速率比其他處理高1.0%—19.4%,達顯著水平。灌漿期籽粒千粒重,在花后0—15 d,DT+H+C處理增長最快,DT+RT處理增長最慢,花后25—30 d,DT+H+C處理千粒重最高,較RT處理提高20.8%。從不同土壤耕作技術對籽粒產量及其構成因素的影響來看,DT+H+C處理的籽粒產量最高;耙和鎮壓處理的單位面積穗數、穗粒數和千粒重的變化并不規律,籽粒產量均有明顯提升,幅度為1.4%—12.2%。經濟效益方面,與當地以往耕作方式RT相比,RT+H、RT+H+C、RT+C、DT+H+C、DT+H處理所得效益均高于RT處理,其中DT+H+C處理產生經濟效益最高,兩年平均比RT處理高12.3%。【結論】 黃淮平原農作區當前一年兩熟制條件下,不同土壤耕作技術影響幼苗質量,旋耕有利于出苗的整齊度提高,而深翻耕則有利于出苗率及幼苗均勻度提高,株高增高,為冬前形成壯苗奠定基礎;深翻耕將耕層加深,利于根系下扎,促進次生根數目的增加以及耕層根系活力的提高,間接影響籽粒產量。綜合考慮植株根系生長發育、生育后期籽粒灌漿速率、粒重形成和產量表現等,研究認為黃淮農作區DT+H+C處理土壤耕作技術是當前的最佳選擇。

關鍵詞: 小麥, 土壤耕作技術, 出苗質量, 單株次生根數, 根系活力, 灌漿速率, 籽粒產量

Abstract:

【Objective】 In view of the prominent problem that corn straw to the field seriously affects the quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under the condition of double cropping per year of Huang-Huai Plain, appropriate soil tillage techniques were explored to improve quality of wheat seedlings and ultimately to increase wheat yield. 【Method】The experiment was carried out at Huanggang village, Xindian town, Xinzheng city, Henan province for 2 consecutive years (from 2016 to 2018). By using a randomized block design, 8 treatments were carried out by combining three factors of plowing, harrow and compacting: deep depth tillage + rotary tillage (DT + RT; DT: 30 cm, RT: 15 cm), deep tillage + harrow (DT + H), deep depth tillage + rotary tillage + compacting (DT + RT + C), rotary tillage (RT), rotary tillage + harrow (RT + H), rotary tillage + compacting (RT + C), and rotary tillage + harrow +compacting (RT + H + C). Emergence rate and seedling quality of wheat were investigated, root characteristics were investigated during wintering stage, re-growing stage, jointing stage, heading stage, grain filling stage, dough stage, and grain characters, yield and its components were analyzed during the filling period, respectively. 【Result】20 days sowing, quality of seedlings in different soil tillage treatments was significantly different. In rotary tillage treatments, emergence uniformity was higher than that in deep tillage treatments, while in deep tillage method, seedling emergence rate, basic seedlings and plant height were higher than those in rotary tillage method. Under the same plowing and compacting, emergence rate in harrow treatment emergence was 1.0%-5.7%; Under the same plowing and harrow, emergence rate in compacting treatment emergence was 0.06%-8.3%. At the same time, after deep depth tillage, seedling deficiency and wedging were rarely seen. Cumulative length of seedling deficiency and wedging under RT treatment was the highest, and the average length of the two years was 55 cm. From the wintering to dough stage, root activity in different soil tillage treatments showed a "high-low-high-low" trend, and it was the highest in treatment “DT + H + C”. In wintering and at jointing stage, root activity was increased after treated with compacting and harrow compared with that in treatments with neither compacting nor harrow. Secondary roots per plant reached the maximum in DT + H + C treatment at heading stage with the highest values were 45.2 and 40.2 in 2017 and 2018, respectively. After treated with harrow, secondary roots per plant were increased by 14.8% compared with those in treatments without harrow. After compacted treatment, secondary roots per plant were increased by 12.2% compared with those in treatments without compacting. Grain filling rate in DT + H + C treatment was significantly higher than that under other treatments during 5-10 days after anthesis, and reached its peak at 20 days after anthesis. Grain filling rate of DT + H + C treatment was higher than that under other treatments, while grain filling rate in DT + H + C treatment was higher than that under other treatments, and grain filling rate under DT + H + C treatment was 19.4% higher than that under other treatments (α=0.05). During grain filling stage, 1000-grain weight increased the most at 0-15 days after anthesis; Under DT + H + C treatments, it was increased the most; Under DT + RT treatments, it was increased the least; under DT + H + C treatments, it increased the most at 25-30 days after anthesis, which was 20.8% higher than that when treated by RT. According to the effects of different tillage techniques on grain yield and its components, the highest grain yield was obtained under DT + H + C treatment. Ears per unit area, kernels per ear and 1000-grain weight were not regular under harrow milling and repressing treatment, and grain yield increased obviously, with a range of 1.4%—12.2%. Economic benefits, in RT + H, RT + H + C, RT + C, DT + H + C, or DT + H treatment were all higher than those in RT treatment compared with the previous farming methods in the local area. Among them, the highest economic benefits was produced under DT + H + C treatment, and the two-year average was 12.3% higher than that under RT treatment【Conclusion】Under the current condition of two cropping systems in the Huang-Huai plain, different soil tillage techniques affected seedling quality, rotation tillage was beneficial to uniformity of seedling emergence, while deep tillage was beneficial to increasing seedling emergence rate, seedling evenness and plant height, laying a foundation for the formation of strong seedlings before wintering. The deep tillage deepened soil surface layer, which was beneficial to rooting, increased secondary roots and root activity in soil surface layer, and indirectly affected grain yield. Considering root system growth, grain filling rate, grain weight formation and yield performance, it was concluded that DT + H + C soil tillage technique was the best choice in Huang-Huai area.

Key words: wheat, soil tillage techniques, seedling quality, secondary roots per plant, root vigor, grain filling rate, grain yield

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