中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (13): 2193-2207.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.13.001

? 作物遺傳育種·種質資源·分子遺傳學 ? 上一篇    下一篇

長江中下游地區小麥品種籽粒和面條品質分析

吳豪1,黃園園1,汪輝1,周玉1,沈家成1,張璨1,丁錦鋒2,鄒娟3,馬尚宇1,郭文善2,鄭文寅1(),姚大年1()   

  1. 1 安徽農業大學農學院/農業部黃淮南片小麥生物學與遺傳育種重點實驗室,合肥 230036
    2 揚州大學/江蘇省糧食作物現代產業技術協同創新中心,江蘇揚州 225009
    3 湖北省農業科學院作物研究所,武漢 430064
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-05 接受日期:2019-04-18 出版日期:2019-07-01 發布日期:2019-07-11
  • 通訊作者: 鄭文寅,姚大年 E-mail:[email protected];[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:吳豪,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃(2016YFD0300405);安徽省自然科學基金(1608085MC70)

Comprehensive Analysis on Grain and Processing Quality of Several Wheat Varieties in the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River

WU Hao1,HUANG YuanYuan1,WANG Hui1,ZHOU Yu1,SHEN JiaCheng1,ZHANG Can1,DING JinFeng2,ZOU Juan3,MA ShangYu1,GUO WenShan2,ZHENG WenYin1(),YAO DaNian1()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology, Genetic and Breeding in Huang-Huai Southern Areas, The Ministry of Agriculture, Hefei 230036
    2 Yangzhou University/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology in Grain Crops of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu
    3 Institute of Food Crops , Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064

摘要:

【目的】分析長江中下游麥區江蘇省、安徽省和湖北省等3個省份間小麥品種的品質性狀差異,選出重要品質性狀指標,以及對面條等加工品質產生重要影響的因素,為長江中下游地區小麥品種品質評價、優質專用小麥品種選育和品質區劃等提供理論依據。【方法】在對各品質性狀進行方差分析的基礎上,對種植于3個省份6個試點13個小麥品種的25個品質性狀進行主成分分析,篩選和評價該地區小麥品種重要品質性狀;采用正交偏最小二乘法判別分析區分省份間品質性狀的差異;對影響面條品質的因素作通徑分析。【結果】供試材料所有品質性狀在地點、品種、品種×地點間差異均達到極顯著水平;主成分分析將所有品質性狀分為淀粉糊化指數、面粉吸水指數、粉質儀指數、蛋白質指數、面粉色澤指數、麥谷蛋白指數、淀粉崩解值指數7個主成分,其累計貢獻值達81.250%,涵蓋絕大多數的品質性狀;對總體的品質評價起第一主導作用的是淀粉糊化指數,其次是面粉吸水指數和粉質儀指數;正交偏最小二乘法判別分析結果表明,該麥區3個省份間品質性狀差異表現在反彈值、最終黏度、低谷黏度和峰值黏度等淀粉糊化特性上;通徑分析結果顯示碳酸鈉溶劑保持力對面條感官評價的直接正向效應最大,而淀粉糊化的崩解值和面筋表現指數對面條感官評價的負向作用較大。【結論】長江中下游地區的小麥品質在不同品種間和不同種植區間的品質性狀存在著極顯著差異;淀粉糊化特性指數等品質性狀表現易受環境的影響,且是影響該區總體品質評價的第一主導因子;江蘇省、安徽省和湖北省等3個省份間小麥品種在反彈值、最終黏度、低谷黏度和峰值黏度等淀粉糊化特性的差異最大,在選育該區中弱筋小麥品種和評價其品質時,應加強對低谷黏度、最終黏度、峰值黏度等淀粉糊特性的重視;影響面條品質(感官評價)的主要因素是破損淀粉率,破損淀粉率高的面粉,適合制作優質面條。

關鍵詞: 小麥, 品質, 主成分分析, 正交偏最小二乘法判別分析, 通徑分析

Abstract:

【Objective】 The present study was conducted to analyze the quality differences of tested wheat varieties in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, including Jiangsu, Anhui and Hubei Provinces. The important factors influencing the noodle quality was assessed in providing theoretical basis for the wheat quality evaluation, variety selection with high-quality, and regional distribution of wheat quality. 【Method】 Based on the variance analysis of quality properties, principal component analysis was carried out in 25 quality traits of 13 wheat varieties planted in 6 pilot sites from 3 provinces, so as to evaluate and screen the important quality properties in this area. Then, partial least square analysis was used to distinguish the quality variation among provinces. Finally, the factors affecting the quality of noodle were analyzed by path analysis. 【Result】 Principal component analysis classified all quality traits into starch gelatinization index, flour water absorption index, flour quality index, protein index, flour color index, glutenin index and starch breakdown index and their cumulative contribution value reached 81.250% covering the vast majority of quality indexes. In the middle and lower reaches wheat areas of the Yangtze River, starch gelatinization index was the leading factor in quality evaluation, followed by flour water absorption index and flour quality index. The results of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that the specific quality differences among the three provinces in this region were manifested in the gelatinization characteristics of starch, such as final viscosity and setback. From the results of path analysis, sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity could be seen as the largest directly positive effect on the sensory evaluation of noodles, while the disintegrating value of starch gelatinization and gluten performance index had relatively great negative effect on noodle quality. 【Conclusion】 Wheat quality in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River is a complex integrative character, and there are significant differences in quality traits among different cultivars and planting areas. Starch gelatinization index and other quality traits are all easily affected by the environment. The great quality variation among the three provinces is setback and final viscosity of starch. With the increase of Trough, final viscosity and setback in starch, the quality of noodle enhance. Damaged starch content is the main factor that affects the quality of noodles based on the sensory evaluation. The wheat flour with high damaged starch content could be used to produce the high-quality noodle.

Key words: wheat, quality, principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, path analysis

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