中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (15): 2581-2592.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.15.003

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

晚冬早春階段增溫對冬小麥光合性能及旗葉衰老的調控作用

閆鵬1,孫小諾2,杜雄1(),高震1,邊大紅1   

  1. 1 河北農業大學農學院/河北省作物生長調控重點實驗室,河北保定 071000
    2 河北省保定市氣象局,河北保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-11 接受日期:2019-04-25 出版日期:2019-08-01 發布日期:2019-08-06
  • 通訊作者: 杜雄 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:閆鵬,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃項目(2017YFD0300908);河北省青年優秀拔尖人才專項基金、河北農業大學作物學科梯隊建設基金(TD2016C204)

Effects of Artificial Warming from Late-Winter to Early-Spring on Photosynthesis and Flag Leaf Senescence of Winter Wheat

YAN Peng1,SUN XiaoNuo2,DU Xiong1(),GAO Zhen1,BIAN DaHong1   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy, Hebei Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Growth Regulation of Hebei Province, Baoding 071000, Hebei
    2 Baoding Meteorological Bureau, Baoding 071000, Hebei
  • Received:2019-03-11 Accepted:2019-04-25 Online:2019-08-01 Published:2019-08-06
  • Contact: Xiong DU E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】針對華北平原北部冬小麥生長發育所需的適宜溫度與環境實際溫度間的矛盾,通過晚冬早春階段性增溫,研究拔節前增溫及拔節后揭除塑膜相對降溫對冬小麥旗葉光合性能和衰老的調控作用,以期為華北平原冬小麥通過調控溫度延緩小麥衰老和挖掘產量潛力提供理論及方法依據。【方法】2015—2017年連續2個生長季在河北省農林科學院深州旱作節水農業試驗站進行大田試驗,以“衡觀35”為試驗材料,晚冬早春采用搭建溫室的方法,設置覆蓋2層塑膜(M2E,1月25日—3月25日)、覆蓋2層塑膜(M2L,2月5日—3月25日)、覆蓋1層塑膜(M1,2月20日—3月25日)、常規生產對照(CK)共4個處理,以覆蓋有孔和無孔塑膜以及時間的早晚和長短來調控溫度和小麥生長發育時間,由此獲得了時間相同的小麥生長發育進程不同、發育進程相同而所處日期和溫度不同的結果。試驗過程中記錄每個處理各生育期起始時間,并測定光合特性、衰老相關酶活性、產量、水分利用效率等指標。【結果】早覆蓋的M2E處理的冬小麥比對照開花提前8 d,成熟提前3—4 d;灌漿期旗葉葉綠素相對含量SPAD提高17.3%、凈光合速率提高30.8%、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性提高23.7%、過氧化氫酶(CAT)活性提高27.2%、過氧化物酶(POD)活性提高19.4%、丙二醛(MDA)含量降低23.8%;開花時的旗葉面積增大27%,收獲時籽粒產量提高22.8%,水分利用效率提高16.9%。隨著增溫時間的推遲和覆蓋時間的縮短,上述指標與對照差異越來越小,以至于M1處理上述指標與CK均顯著不差異。【結論】晚冬早春階段增溫既維持了旗葉較高的光合速率,又顯著延緩了旗葉衰老,進而為灌漿提供了物質基礎;既增加了小麥穗粒數,又延長了小麥灌漿時間,從而獲得了高產,獲得高產的同時雖然增加了耗水量但促進了水分的高效利用。晚冬早春階段增溫是華北平原北部冬小麥有效平衡熱量資源供應與生長發育所需的方法,既可減輕晚冬早春凍害對小麥返青及拔節的影響,又可規避小麥生育后期干熱風帶來的危害。

關鍵詞: 冬小麥, 階段增溫, 光合特性, 旗葉衰老, 籽粒產量

Abstract:

【Objective】 In view of the contradiction between the optimum temperature required for the growth and development of winter wheat and the actual temperature provided in the environment in the north of North China Plain, we attempted to artificially increase the temperature from the end of January to the end of March through plastic-film greenhouse and study the effect of temperature on photosynthesis and flag leaf senescence of winter wheat, in order to provide theoretical and methodological basis for delaying wheat senescence by regulating temperature and tapping the yield potential of winter wheat in North China Plain.【Method】 Field experiments were conducted at Shenzhou Dry-Farming and Water-Saving Agricultural Test Station of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences in two consecutive growing seasons from 2015 to 2017. Using ‘Hengguan 35’ as experimental material, greenhouses were constructed in late winter and early spring. Four treatments were set up, i.e., cover 2 layers of plastic film (M2E, January 25-March 25), 2 layers of plastic film (M2L, February 5-March 25), 1 layer of plastic film (M1, February 20-March 25), and conventional production control (CK). Temperature and wheat production and development time were regulated by covering porous and non-porous plastic film and its covering time, which resulted in different growth and development processes in the same date, and the same growth process in different dates and temperatures. During the experiment, the beginning time of each growth period was recorded, and the indexes of photosynthetic characteristics, senescence-related enzymes activity, yield, and water use efficiency were measured. 【Result】 The treated wheat was in a relatively higher temperature in pre-jointing stage and lower temperature after jointing, it promoted the wheat to grow earlier and prolong its developing period. The winter wheat in M2E treatment was 7-8 days earlier than the control in flowering and 3-4 days earlier in ripening; At grain filling stage, the net photosynthetic rate of flag leaf increased by 24.9%, the relative content of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increased by 13.3%, 17%, 17% and 14.2%, respectively, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased by 22.7%. Flag leaf area increased by 27% at flowering, grain yield increased by 22.8% at harvest and water use efficiency increased by 15.2%. With the delay of warming time and the shortening of covering time, the difference of the above indexes was smaller and smaller, so that there was no significant difference between M1 treatment and CK treatment. 【Conclusion】 Warming in late-winter and early-spring not only significantly prolonged the filling time of wheat, but also maintained higher photosynthesis of flag leaves and delayed senescence of flag leaves, which provided more material basis for grain filling, and promoted the efficient use of water at the same time of obtaining high yield. Increasing temperature in late winter and early spring could be suitable for rational allocation of heat resources and growth and development needs of winter wheat in the north of North China Plain. At the same time, it could not only alleviate the harm of late spring cold on wheat, but also avoid the influence of dry-hot wind on wheat in later growth stage.

Key words: winter wheat, artificial warming, photosynthetic characteristics, flag leaf senescence, grain yield

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