中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (17): 2983-2996.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.17.007

? 土壤肥料·節水灌溉·農業生態環境 ? 上一篇    下一篇

施用有機肥對我國作物氮肥利用率影響的整合分析

任科宇1,段英華1(),徐明崗1,張旭博2()   

  1. 1 中國農業科學院農業資源與農業區劃研究所/耕地培育技術國家工程實驗室,北京100081
    2 中國科學院地理科學與資源研究所/生態網絡觀測與模擬重點實驗室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-18 接受日期:2019-05-07 出版日期:2019-09-01 發布日期:2019-09-10
  • 通訊作者: 段英華,張旭博 E-mail:[email protected];[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:任科宇,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發計劃(2016YFD0200301);國家自然科學基金項目(41471247);北京市自然科學基金(6142018);土壤與農業可持續發展國家重點實驗室開放基金(Y412201405)

Effect of Manure Application on Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Crops in China: A Meta-Analysis

REN KeYu1,DUAN YingHua1(),XU MingGang1,ZHANG XuBo2()   

  1. 1 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing 100081
    2 Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Beijing 100101

摘要:

【目的】化肥配施有機肥是提高作物氮肥利用率(NUE)的重要措施之一。但由于作物的氮肥利用率受到施氮量、土壤性質和氣候條件等因素的影響,且多數研究只在某一特定區域或條件下進行,對于全國不同區域施用有機肥對氮肥利用率影響的研究缺乏系統分析和比較。因此,探明化肥配施有機肥對氮肥利用率的影響,量化不同土壤和氣候條件下氮肥利用率對有機肥施用的響應,可指導區域性的有機肥施用,為化肥減施增效提供重要的理論依據。【方法】本研究收集了公開發表的文獻110篇,建立了412組包含化肥配施有機肥(NPKM)和單施化肥(NPK)處理的氮肥利用率的數據庫。采用整合分析(Meta-analysis)和隨機森林(Random Forest)方法分析了全國不同區域的氮肥利用率在NPK和NPKM處理下的差異,定量化了施氮量、土壤性質和氣候條件等因素對有機肥正效應的貢獻率。【結果】全國來說,相比NPK,NPKM處理下氮肥利用率提高了3.6個百分點。除東北地區外,在其他地區NPKM均顯著提高了氮肥利用率,提高幅度依次為西北>華北>南方>華東。土壤性狀中影響有機肥“增效”作用的主要因素是有機質、pH、速效鉀和全氮含量,其中土壤有機質含量越低,配施有機肥后氮肥利用率的提高幅度越大;在堿性土壤上配施有機肥對氮肥利用率的提高幅度分別是中性土壤和酸性土壤的1.3和1.8倍。另外,不同氣候類型下配施有機肥對氮肥利用率的提高幅度存在差異,表現為溫帶大陸性氣候區>溫帶季風性氣候區>亞熱帶季風性氣候區。【結論】施用有機肥可顯著提高作物的氮肥利用率,且在有機質含量較低、降雨量較少的西北地區配施有機肥后氮肥利用率的提高幅度最大。

關鍵詞: 氮肥利用率, 有機肥, 施氮量, 土壤性質, 氣候, 區域差異, 整合分析

Abstract:

【Objective】 Combined chemical fertilizers with manure is one of the important approaches to improve the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops. Nowadays, rare studies focused on systematic comparison and analysis of combine chemical fertilizers with manure on nitrogen use efficiency in different regions of China. In addition, NUE is affected by many factors, such as nitrogen application amount, soil properties and the climatic conditions and even most of them are in the specific regions. Therefore, this study was carried out to explore the effects of chemical fertilizers combined with manure on NUE, and quantify the response of NUE to manure application in different soils and climatic regions, so as to give the guidance on sustaining regional agricultural development and provide an important theoretical basis for reducing fertilizer application. 【Method】 This study was conducted based on a database of NUE including 412 sets on NPKM vs. NPK, which were collected from 110 published articles with wheat, maize and rice. We analyzed the differences of NUE between the treatment of NPK and NPKM in five regions in China by Meta-analysis, and quantified the contribution of main controlling factors on positive manure affects by Random Forest analysis. 【Result】 Compared with NPK, NPKM treatment increased the NUE by 3.6%. NPKM treatment significantly increased the NUE of crops in all regions except the Northeast China. The highest enhancement was found at Northwestern China, followed by Northern China, Southern Region and Eastern China. Soil organic matter, pH, available potassium and total nitrogen were the main factors affecting the “positive effect” of manure on NUE. The increment of NUE by manure application was higher in the soils with lower organic matter content than that in the soils with high organic matter content. The increase of NUE in alkaline soils with manure applied was 1.3 and 1.8 times higher than those on neutral and acidic soils, respectively. The improvement of NUE by manure application varied among climate regions: temperate continental climate zone>temperate monsoon climate zone>subtropical monsoon climate zone. 【Conclusion】 The application of manure could significantly increase the NUE of crops, especially in northwestern areas with low organic matter content and less rainfall.

Key words: nitrogen use efficiency, manure, nitrogen application rate, soil properties, climate, regional differences, Meta- analysis

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