中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (19): 3279-3290.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.19.001

? 作物遺傳育種·種質資源·分子遺傳學 ? 上一篇    下一篇

新疆早熟陸地棉品種更替過程中的株型特征及 主要經濟性狀的演變

陳民志,楊延龍,王宇軒,田景山,徐守振,劉寧寧,黨科,張旺鋒()   

  1. 石河子大學農學院/新疆生產建設兵團綠洲生態農業重點實驗室,新疆石河子 832003
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-09 接受日期:2019-06-28 出版日期:2019-10-01 發布日期:2019-10-11
  • 通訊作者: 張旺鋒 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:陳民志,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家自然科學基金聯合基金重點項目(U1803234)

Plant Type Characteristics and Evolution of Main Economic Characters in Early Maturing Upland Cotton Cultivar Replacement in Xinjiang

CHEN MinZhi,YANG YanLong,WANG YuXuan,TIAN JingShan,XU ShouZhen,LIU NingNing,DANG Ke,ZHANG WangFeng()   

  1. College of Agriculture, Shihezi University/The Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi 832003, Xinjiang
  • Received:2019-04-09 Accepted:2019-06-28 Online:2019-10-01 Published:2019-10-11
  • Contact: WangFeng ZHANG E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】 分析新疆早熟陸地棉品種更替產量提高過程中株型特征及主要經濟性狀的演變趨勢,結合發展機采棉對品種特性的需求,闡述品種更替中適宜機采特性的變化,為新疆棉花新品種選育及栽培管理提供理論依據。【方法】 于2015—2016年和2018年選擇新疆近40年來自育早熟陸地棉(Gossypium hirsutum L.)不同年代(1980s、1990s、2000s和2010s)大面積主栽品種(新陸早1號、新陸早7號、新陸早13號和新陸早45號)為材料,在膜下滴灌栽培條件下,對不同年代品種的第一果節長度、果枝節間長度、節枝比、株高、果枝始節、始節高度、果枝夾角、果枝數、葉枝數、倒四葉寬和莖粗共11個株型指標及主要經濟性狀的演變進行分析。【結果】 隨品種更替,棉株第一果節長度、果枝節間長度和節枝比逐漸增加,株型由緊湊型向較松散型轉變;株高、果枝始節和始節高度逐漸增加,上部果枝與主莖的夾角逐漸減小,果枝上舉,具有高產株型特征;根據棉花機采對品種特性的要求,2010s品種果枝始節高度和果枝角度較符合機采棉對株型的要求;不同年代品種間果枝數、葉枝數、倒四葉寬和莖粗無明顯差異。皮棉產量、總鈴數和衣分均隨品種更替逐漸增加,其中1980s、1990s、2000s和2010s品種皮棉產量較當年區域試驗產量分別高23%—53%、16%—20%、13%—14%和-2%—6%,膜下滴灌現代高產栽培技術對產量的提高有重要作用,但2000s和2010s品種收獲指數顯著低于1990s品種。與1980s和1990s品種相比,2010s品種上部鈴期短4—5 d,吐絮相對集中,對脫葉劑敏感,吐絮率均在95%以上,無顯著差異,但生育期偏長;與審定時品種的生育期相比,1980s和1990s品種提前了3—7 d,2000s和2010s品種提前了0—3 d,這可能與膜下滴灌促早熟栽培技術應用有關。2000s和2010s品種棉纖維長度、比強度、伸長率和紡紗一致性明顯改善,但馬克隆值相對偏大,纖維強度的改善是以犧牲纖維細度為代價,纖維品質協調性不佳。【結論】 品種更替產量提高過程中,棉花經濟性狀改善,但品種株型由緊湊型向較松散型轉變,生育期偏長,收獲指數偏低,棉纖維馬克隆值偏大;隨著機采棉種植模式的應用,選育和選用纖維品質優、適宜機采的品種是保障新疆棉花產業穩步發展的關鍵。

關鍵詞: 早熟陸地棉, 品種更替, 株型性狀, 纖維品質, 機械采收

Abstract:

【Objective】 This paper analyzed the evolution trend of plant type characteristics and main economic traits in the process of improving the yield of early-maturing upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Xinjiang, combined with the demand for the characteristics of cultivars in the development of machine-harvested cotton, and explained the changes of suitable machine-harvesting characteristics in cultivar replacement. It provides a theoretical basis for the breeding and cultivation management of new cotton varieties in Xinjiang. 【Method】 Large-scale main cultivars (Xinluzao 1, Xinluzao 7, Xinluzao 13, and Xinluzao 45) were used as experimental materials under mulched drip irrigation condition. A total of eleven plant type characters and the evolution of major economic traits were analyzed, including the eleven plant type characters of the length of the first fruit node, inter-node length of fruit branch, ratio of fruit node/fruit branch, plant height, node of first fruit branch, height of first fruit branch, the angle between fruit branch and main stem, the number of fruit branches, the number of vegetative branches, width of the fourth leaf from the top, and stem diameter. 【Result】 With the cotton cultivar replacing, the length of the first fruit node, inter-node length of fruit branch, and the ratio of fruit node/fruit branch increased gradually. The plant type changed from compact to loose. Plant height, node of first fruit branch, and height of first fruit branch increased gradually. The angle between fruit branch and main stem of upper-canopy was gradually reduced, and the fruit branch was lifted, which has high plant-type characteristics. According to the requirements of cotton machine harvesting characteristics. It shows that 2010s cultivars had plant type characters with high yield. The length of the first fruit node and the angle between fruit branch and main stem of 2010s cultivars was more in line with the requirements of machine-harvested cotton. There was no significant differences in number of fruit branches, number of vegetative branches, width of the fourth leaf from the top, and stem diameter among cultivars of different ages. The lint yield, total boll number, and lint percentage increased gradually with the cotton cultivar replacing. The lint yield of the 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s was 23%-53%, 16%-20%, 13%-14%, and -2%-6% higher than the yield of regional experiment year. The modern high-yield cultivation techniques under mulched drip irrigation plays an important role on yield improvement. However, the harvest index of 2000s and 2010s cultivars were significantly lower than the 1990s cultivars. Compared with the 1980s and 1990s cultivars, the upper boll period of the 2010s cultivars was reduced 4-5 days, the boll opening were relatively concentrate, sensitive to defoliant. There was no significant difference in boll opening rate, and they were greater than 95%. But the growth period was longer. Compared with the growth period of the trial cultivars, the 1980s and 1990s cultivars were advanced by 3-7 days, and the 2000s and 2010s cultivars were advanced by 0-3 days. This may be related to the application of the technique of precocious cultivation under mulched drip irrigation. The fiber length, fiber strength, elongation, and fiber spinning consistency index of 2000s and 2010s cultivars improved obviously. But the Micronaire was relatively large. The improvement of fiber strength was at the expense of fiber fineness, and the fiber quality coordination was not good. 【Conclusion】 During the process of increasing yield of cotton cultivar replacement, economic characteristics of cotton improved, but the increasing yield of plant type changed from compact to loose, with long growth period, low harvest index, and large Micronaire. With the application of the machine-harvesting mode, the breeding and selection of cultivars with excellent fiber quality and suitable machine-harvesting are the key to ensuring the steady development of the cotton industry Xinjiang.

Key words: early-maturing cotton, cultivar renew, plant type characters, fiber quality, machine-harvest

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