中國農業科學 ?? 2019, Vol. 52 ?? Issue (23): 4191-4200.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2019.23.001

? 作物遺傳育種·種質資源·分子遺傳學 ? 上一篇    下一篇

小麥種質資源耐熱性評價

王小波1,關攀鋒1,辛明明1,汪永法1,陳希勇2,趙愛菊2,劉曼雙3,李紅霞3,張明義4,逯臘虎4,魏亦勤5,劉旺清5,張金波6,倪中福1,姚穎垠1,胡兆榮1,彭惠茹1,孫其信1()   

  1. 1 中國農業大學農學院/農業生物技術國家重點實驗室/雜種優勢研究與利用教育部重點實驗室/作物遺傳改良北京市重點實驗室,北京 100193
    2 河北省農林科學院糧油作物研究所/河北省作物遺傳育種實驗室,石家莊 050035
    3 西北農林科技大學農學院,陜西楊凌 712100
    4 山西省農業科學院小麥研究所,山西臨汾 041000
    5 寧夏農林科學院農作物研究所,寧夏永寧 750105
    6 新疆農業科學院農作物品種資源研究所,烏魯木齊 830091
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-15 接受日期:2019-08-03 出版日期:2019-12-01 發布日期:2019-12-01
  • 通訊作者: 孫其信 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:王小波,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家自然科學基金國際(地區)合作與交流項目(31561143013);國家重點研發計劃(2016YFD0100102);寧夏農林科學院自主研發項目(NKYJ-17-15)

Evaluation of Heat Tolerance in Wheat Germplasm Resources

WANG XiaoBo1,GUAN PanFeng1,XIN MingMing1,WANG YongFa1,CHEN XiYong2,ZHAO AiJu2,LIU ManShuang3,LI HongXia3,ZHANG MingYi4,LU LaHu4,WEI YiQin5,LIU WangQing5,ZHANG JinBo6,NI ZhongFu1,YAO YingYin1,HU ZhaoRong1,PENG HuiRu1,SUN QiXin1()   

  1. 1 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology/Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE)/Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Beijing 100193
    2 Institute of Cereal and Oil Crops of Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences/Hebei Crop Genetic Breeding Laboratory, Shijiazhuang 050035
    3 Agronomy College, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi;
    4 Institute of Wheat, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Linfen 041000, Shanxi
    5 Crop Research Institute of Ningxia Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yongning 750105, Ningxia
    6 Institute of Crop Germplasm Resource, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091
  • Received:2019-05-15 Accepted:2019-08-03 Online:2019-12-01 Published:2019-12-01
  • Contact: QiXin SUN E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】利用熱感指數作為耐熱性鑒定指標,分別對冬、春小麥種質資源進行高通量耐熱性鑒定,篩選耐熱種質資源,為小麥耐熱性育種提供材料基礎。【方法】冬小麥材料采用延期播種、春小麥材料種植在溫度有顯著差異的地理環境下,人為致使小麥灌漿期遭遇高溫脅迫。根據不同環境處理的千粒重值計算冬、春小麥各個材料的熱感指數。依據熱感指數,對來自中國不同小麥生態區和國外不同地區和組織的1 325份小麥種質資源,包括688份冬小麥和637份春小麥,分別進行耐熱性評價。熱感指數小于0.5為極耐熱材料、大于等于0.5小于1為中等耐熱材料、大于等于1小于1.5為中等熱敏感材料、大于等于1.5為極敏感材料。【結果】冬小麥和春小麥熱脅迫處理組灌漿期平均最高溫度分別高于對照組1.91℃和7.09℃,且熱脅迫處理組千粒重與對照組相比均有顯著降低。根據熱感指數分級評價結果,極耐熱冬、春小麥材料31和48份,占供試材料的4.51%和7.54%;極敏感冬、春小麥材料19和58份,占供試材料的2.76%和9.11%;其余大多數材料為中間類型(中等耐熱材料和中等熱敏感材料)。從中國小麥生態區域的地理分布來看,來自南部麥區(西南冬麥區、青藏春冬麥區、長江中下游冬麥區)的冬小麥材料耐熱性整體高于來自北部麥區(北部冬麥區、黃淮冬麥區)的冬小麥材料。對于春小麥,來自新疆春冬麥區的材料耐熱性最強,平均熱感指數為0.70,且其中88.00%的材料屬于耐熱材料(極耐熱材料或中等耐熱材料);此外,來自國際干旱地區農業研究中心的春小麥平均熱感指數為0.88,也表現出較強的耐熱性。來自CIMMYT的人工合成六倍體材料耐熱性最弱,平均HSI為1.18,其中69.58%的材料為熱敏感材料(中等熱敏感材料和極敏感材料)。【結論】采用延期播種或在高溫的地理環境下種植能使小麥在灌漿期遭遇高溫脅迫。以千粒重熱感指數作為評價指標,對1 325份小麥種質資源進行高通量耐熱性鑒定,綜合考慮正常條件下的產量潛力和高溫條件下的耐熱性,篩選出優異耐熱資源103份,可用于相應生態區小麥的耐熱性遺傳改良。

關鍵詞: 小麥, 種質資源, 耐熱性, 熱感指數, 生態區

Abstract:

【Objective】 High-throughput evaluation of winter and spring wheat accessions for heat tolerance via heat susceptibility index (HSI) could provide the potentially superior accessions for heat-tolerant breeding programs. 【Method】 In order to expose plants to high temperatures during grain filling period, winter wheat accessions were sown in normal and late seasons, and spring wheat accessions were sown in different geographical environments with contrasting temperatures. The thousand grain weight (TGW) of winter and spring wheat accessions were measured under normal and heat stress environments, respectively. HSI was calculated from the TGW data of two different conditions. Using heat susceptibility index, 1 325 wheat germplasms from different wheat ecological zones of China, and international areas and organizations, including 688 winter wheat accessions and 637 spring wheat accessions, were evaluated for heat tolerance. Genotypes were classified into four tolerant grades, i.e. highly heat-tolerant (HSI<0.50), medium heat-tolerant (0.5≤HSI<1), medium heat-susceptible (1≤HSI<1.5) and highly heat-susceptible (HSI>1.5). 【Result】 The average maximum temperature at grain filling stage under heat stress condition was higher than that of the controls by 1.91℃ for winter wheat and 7.09℃ for spring wheat, respectively. TGW under heat stress condition was significantly lower than that of the corresponding control. According to the grading evaluation results of HSI, thirty-one and 48 highly heat-tolerant winter and spring wheat accessions accounted for 4.51% and 7.54% of the test materials, 19 and 58 highly heat-susceptible winter and spring wheat accessions accounted for 2.76% and 9.11% of the tested materials, and the rest were medium germplasms (medium heat-tolerant and medium heat-susceptible). According to the geographical distribution of wheat ecological regions, winter wheat from the southern wheat region (Southwestern Winter Wheat Zone, Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Spring and Winter Wheat Zone, and Middle and Lower Yangtze Valley Winter Wheat Zone) were more tolerant than that from northern wheat region (Northern Winter Wheat Zone, and Yellow and Huai River Winter Wheat Zone). For spring wheat, the average HSI of accessions from Xinjiang Spring and Winter Wheat Zone was 0.70, which was the most heat-tolerant, and 88.00% of the accessions belong to heat-tolerant (highly heat-tolerant or medium heat-tolerant) germplasms. In addition, the average HSI of spring wheat from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) with 0.88 showed heat-tolerant. The synthetic hexaploid wheats from CIMMYT had the weakest heat tolerance, with an average HSI of 1.18, of which 69.58% were heat-susceptible germplasms (medium heat-susceptible and highly heat-susceptible). 【Conclusion】 Delayed sowing or planting in environment with high temperatures can make wheat encounter high temperature stress at grain filling stage. High-throughput method based on the HSI of TGW was performed to evaluate heat tolerance of 1 325 winter and spring wheat germplasms. Overall, one hundred and three heat-tolerant germplasms with high yield potential were identified, which could be used as parents developing heat-tolerant wheat varieties.

Key words: wheat, germplasm, heat-tolerance, heat susceptible index, ecological zone

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