中國農業科學 ?? 2020, Vol. 53 ?? Issue (3): 486-499.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.03.003

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

施氮量對黃土高原旱地冬小麥產量和水分利用 效率影響的整合分析

馬登科1,2,殷俐娜1,3,劉溢健3,楊文稼3,鄧西平1,3,王仕穩1,3()   

  1. 1 中國科學院水利部水土保持研究所/黃土高原土壤侵蝕與旱地農業國家重點實驗室,陜西楊凌 712100
    2 中國科學院大學,北京 100049
    3 西北農林科技大學水土保持研究所,陜西楊凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-15 接受日期:2019-07-03 出版日期:2020-02-01 發布日期:2020-02-13
  • 通訊作者: 王仕穩 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:馬登科,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    “十二五”農村領域國家科技計劃(2015BAD22B01);國家重點基礎研究計劃(2015CB150402)

A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Nitrogen Application Rates on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat in Dryland of Loess Plateau

MA DengKe1,2,YIN LiNa1,3,LIU YiJian3,YANG WenJia3,DENG XiPing1,3,WANG ShiWen1,3()   

  1. 1 Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources/State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi
  • Received:2019-05-15 Accepted:2019-07-03 Online:2020-02-01 Published:2020-02-13
  • Contact: ShiWen WANG E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】明確氮肥在黃土高原地區不同種植條件下對冬小麥生產的影響及各條件下合理的施氮量。【方法】通過文獻檢索共獲得82篇大田試驗文獻,包含355個獨立研究的1 169組觀測數據,采用整合分析比較氮肥在黃土高原不同區域、不同年均溫、不同年降水量及不同耕層有機質含量下對冬小麥產量和水分利用效率的影響,并采用回歸分析探究各分組產量和水分利用效率與施氮量間的關系。【結果】施氮整體上顯著提高了黃土高原冬小麥產量和水分利用效率,相對增長率分別為66.09%和72.38%(P<0.05)。施氮后西北部產量相對增長率(69.27%)高于東南部,水分利用效率增長率(65.53%)低于東南部;西北部在施氮量212 kg·hm -2時產量達到最高,東南部需多施15 kg·hm -2才能獲得最高產量;西北部施氮232 kg·hm -2時水分利用效率最高,而東南部水分利用效率在施氮224 kg·hm -2時基本趨于穩定。施氮后年均溫≤10℃地區產量和水分利用效率的相對增長率(79.12%,75.00%)均高于>10℃地區;年均溫>10℃地區施氮189 kg·hm -2和187 kg·hm -2時產量和水分利用效率分別達到最高,而年均溫≤10℃地區施氮225 kg·hm -2時產量才趨于最大,水分利用效率在施氮239 kg·hm -2時達到最高。施氮后在年均降水≤600 mm地區產量相對增長率(70.48%)更顯著,而水分利用效率則在年均降水>600 mm時更顯著;年均降水≤600 mm地區在施氮量235 kg·hm -2和244 kg·hm -2時,產量和水分利用效率分別達到最高,年均降水>600 mm地區實現高產的施氮量為250 kg·hm -2。施氮后耕層有機質含量≤12 g·kg -1條件下,產量和水分利用效率的相對增長率(78.24%, 86.55%)均高于>12 g·kg -1條件,前者在施氮量226 kg·hm -2和212 kg·hm -2時產量和水分利用效率分別達到最高,而后者獲得最高產量和最高水分利用效率的施氮量分別為163 kg·hm -2和175 kg·hm -2。【結論】在黃土高原,冬小麥在東南部和西北部獲得高產的合理施氮量分別為227 kg·hm -2和212 kg·hm -2;年均溫>10℃地區合理施氮量為187 kg·hm -2,年均溫≤10℃地區為239 kg·hm -2;年均降水>600 mm地區合理施氮量為250 kg·hm -2,年均降水量≤600 mm地區為235 kg·hm -2;耕層有機質含量≤12 g·kg -1條件下的合理施氮量為226 kg·hm -2,高于12 g·kg -1時則為163 kg·hm -2

關鍵詞: 氮肥, 冬小麥, 產量, 水分利用效率, 整合分析

Abstract:

【Objective】 The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of nitrogen fertilizer (N) on winter wheat yield and the optimum N level under different planting conditions in the Loess Plateau.【Method】A total of 82 field studies were obtained through literature retrieval. The effects of N on yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat in different regions, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation and plough layer organic matter content in the Loess Plateau were compared by meta-analysis. Regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between yield and N application rate, water use efficiency and N application rate in each group. 【Result】 Compared with no N application, N application improved the yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat in the Loess Plateau by 66.09% and 72.38%, respectively (P<0.05). The effect of N on yield was more prominent in the northwest than that in the southeast, and the effect of N on water use efficiency was more prominent in the southeast than in northwest. The yield of northwest reached the highest when the N application rate was 212 kg·hm -2, and the highest yield could be obtained by applying another 15 kg N·hm -2in southeast. The water use efficiency reached maximum at 232 kg N·hm -2 in northwest, while at 224 kg·hm -2 in southeast. The effects of N on yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat were more prominent in areas with average annual temperature ≤10℃. At the area of average temperature >10℃, yield and water use efficiency reached the maximum when N rates were 189 kg·hm -2 and 187 kg·hm -2, respectively. However, at the area of average temperature ≤10℃, yield and water use efficiency reached the maximum when N rates were 225 kg·hm -2 and 239 kg·hm -2, respectively. The effect of N on yield was prominent in areas of annual average precipitation ≤ 600 mm, while the change rate of water use efficiency was prominent in areas with annual precipitation >600 mm. The yield and water use efficiency reached the highest at 235 kg N·hm -2 and 244 kg N·hm -2 application rates in areas with annual precipitation <600 mm, while 235 kg·hm -2 and 250 kg·hm -2 in the area with annual precipitation >600 mm. The effect of N on yield and water use efficiency was prominent when the organic matter content in plough layer was ≤12 g·kg -1. Under the condition of topsoil organic matter >12 g·kg -1, the yield and water use efficiency tended to be highest when the N application rates were 163 kg·hm -2 and 175 kg·hm -2. The optimum N application rate was 226 kg·hm -2 when the topsoil organic matter content ≤12 g·kg -1.【Conclusion】 The optimum N application rates for high yield of winter wheat in the southeast and northwest were 227 kg·hm -2 and 212 kg·hm -2, respectively. The optimum N application rate was 188 kg·hm -2 in the area with average annual temperature >10℃, and 225 kg·hm -2 when average annual temperature ≤10℃. In the area with annual average precipitation >600 mm, the optimum N application rate was 250 kg·hm -2, and 235 kg·hm -2 when annual average precipitation ≤600 mm. The optimum N application rate was 226 kg·hm -2 under the topsoil organic matter content ≤12 g·kg -1, and 163 kg·hm -2 when the topsoil organic matter content >12 g·kg -1.

Key words: nitrogen fertilizer, winter wheat, yield, water use efficiency, meta-analysis

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