中國農業科學 ?? 2020, Vol. 53 ?? Issue (5): 890-903.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.05.003

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

長江下游稻區不同類型雙季晚粳稻產量與生育特性差異

殷敏,劉少文,褚光,徐春梅,王丹英,章秀福,陳松()   

  1. 中國水稻研究所,杭州 311400
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-05 接受日期:2019-10-08 出版日期:2020-03-01 發布日期:2020-03-14
  • 通訊作者: 陳松 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:殷敏,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家重點研發項目(2016YFD0300507);國家重點研發項目(2016YFD0300208-02)

Differences in Yield and Growth Traits of Different Japonica Varieties in the Double Cropping Late Season in the Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

YIN Min,LIU ShaoWen,CHU Guang,XU ChunMei,WANG DanYing,ZHANG XiuFu,CHEN Song()   

  1. China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 311400
  • Received:2019-08-05 Accepted:2019-10-08 Online:2020-03-01 Published:2020-03-14
  • Contact: Song CHEN E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】明確不同類型粳稻在長江下游作雙季晚稻種植的產量和生育特性,為篩選適宜長江下游雙季晚粳品種提供理論依據。【方法】2017—2018年在浙江省杭州市中國水稻研究所實驗農場,以高產晚秈稻品種(IR)為對照,并選擇大面積應用的常規粳稻(IJR)、雜交粳稻(HJR)和秈粳雜交稻(IJHR)品種,研究比較晚季溫光條件下常規粳稻、雜交粳稻、秈粳雜交稻和晚秈稻在產量、生育期以及溫光資源配置上的差異。【結果】(1)秈粳雜交稻產量(8.3—10.0 t·hm -2)顯著高于其他晚稻類型,分別增產2.9%—29.3%(晚秈稻),30.9%—35.3%(常規粳稻)和13.4%—14.0%(雜交粳稻);常規粳稻產量最低,較晚秈稻分別減產24.0%(2017年)和1.2%(2018年);而雜交粳稻與晚秈稻產量差異隨年份不同而不同。與晚秈稻相比,秈粳雜交稻有效穗少、穗型大、庫容高、千粒重和結實率相似;而常規/雜交粳稻則表現為有效穗近似,千粒重大,穗型小。全生育期總體上表現為秈粳雜交稻>雜交粳稻>常規粳稻>秈稻。與秈稻相比,粳型(秈粳雜、常規和雜交粳稻)水稻營養生長期變化較小;穗發育期略有縮短(1—6 d),而灌漿期顯著延長(12—22 d);全生育期溫光資源積累量顯著提高,其中主要貢獻來自灌漿期的延長。(2)利用主成分分析(PCA),將供試雙季晚稻產量構成與生育特性降維為主成分一(穗粒型因子,37.7%)和主成分二(生育期因子,24.7%)。結果表明秈粳雜交稻為少穗多粒、長灌漿期;晚秈稻為穗粒兼顧、短灌漿期;常規和雜交粳稻的品種特征無顯著差異,均為多穗少粒、長灌漿期。(3)相關分析表明,雙季晚粳稻產量與每穗粒數(R 2=0.607,P<0.001)、庫容(R 2=0.779,P<0.001)和灌漿期(R 2=0.505,P<0.001)呈極顯著正相關關系。此外,與雙季晚秈稻相比,雙季晚粳稻產量對環境變化較敏感,品種間、年度間變異系數較大,這就需要品種的屬地化和因種栽培。【結論】雙季晚稻“秈改粳”最主要的優勢在于延長灌漿期,從而提高全生育期溫光資源積累量。與其他類型水稻相比,秈粳雜交稻產量高,表現為大穗型、高庫容及長灌漿期,更適宜于長江下游雙季晚稻種植。選用秈粳雜交稻,對于提高雙季晚稻產量和溫光資源利用率、保證雙季稻生產安全性具有十分重要的意義。

關鍵詞: 雙季晚稻, 產量, 生育特性, 晚秈稻, 常規粳稻, 雜交粳稻, 秈粳雜交稻

Abstract:

【Objective】The aim of the study was to evaluate the yield and growth traits of different types of japonica rice in the late season in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, so as to provide a theoretical basis for selecting the proper varieties in the double cropping late season in this area. 【Method】 Field experiment was carried out at the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province from 2017 to 2018, with four rice types, including the late indica rice (IR) as a control, inbred japonica (IJR), hybrid japonica (HJR) and indica/japonica hybrid rice (IJHR). 【Result】(1) The yield of IJHR (8.3-10.0 t·hm -2) was significantly higher than that of other rice types, increasing by 2.9%-29.3%, 30.9%-35.3% , and 13.4%-14.0% than IR, IJR, and HJR, respectively; The average yield of IJR was the lowest, which was 24.0% (2017) and 1.2% (2018) lower than control (IR), while the yield difference between HJR and IR was varied within years. The IJHR had higher spikelets per panicle and greater sink, and similar panicles per unit area, grain weight, and grain setting as compared to IR. In contrast, the IJR/HJR had higher grain weight and lower spikelets per panicle than IR. The growth duration was ranked in the order of IJHR>HJR>IJR>IR. Compared with IR, the japonica rice (IJR, HJR, and IJHR) had similar vegetative stage (about 56-59 d), slightly reduced reproductive stage (1-6 d), and prolonged the grain filling stage (12-22 d), which leading to an improved accumulation of temperature and solar radiation of the growth duration. (2) The yield component and phenological traits were dimensional reduced by principal component analysis (PCA) as principal component one (panicle size factor, 37.7%) and the principal component two (the growth factor, 24.7%), of which the IJHR was classified as variety with few panicles, large grains, and long grain filling stage, and the IR was medium panicles numbers and size, and short grain filling stage. There was no difference between IJR and HJR based on PCA, being multiple panicles, small panicle size, and long grain filling stage. (3) Correlation analysis showed that the yields of late japonica rice were significantly positively correlated with spikelets per panicle (R 2=0.607,P<0.001), sink size (R 2=0.779,P<0.001) and grain filling stage (R 2=0.505,P<0.001). Compared with the late indica rice, the yield of the double cropping late japonica rice was obvious sensitive to the change of environment, which was characterized by large coefficient of variation between varieties and years. Therefore, it was necessary to localize the variety and cultivate it by species. 【Conclusion】 Applying japonica variety in the late season would prolong the grain filling stage, and increase the temperature and solar radiation accumulation for the late-season rice as compared with IR. The IJHR with large panicle size, high sink size and long grain filling stage maintained the great yield superiors and being suitable for growing the late season in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which would help to improve the yield, temperature and light resources utilization and safety of the late-season rice.

Key words: double cropping late rice, yield, growth traits, late indica rice, inbred japonica rice, hybrid japonica rice, indica/japonica hybrid rice

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