中國農業科學 ?? 2020, Vol. 53 ?? Issue (5): 929-941.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.05.006

? 耕作栽培·生理生化·農業信息技術 ? 上一篇    下一篇

白菜型冬油菜萌動種子低溫春化的生理生化特征

徐春梅,鄒婭,劉自剛(),米文博,徐明霞,董小云,曹小東,鄭國強,方新玲   

  1. 甘肅農業大學農學院/甘肅省油菜工程與技術研究中心/甘肅省干旱生境作物學重點實驗室/甘肅省作物遺傳改良與種質創新重點實驗室, 蘭州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2019-08-07 接受日期:2019-11-03 出版日期:2020-03-01 發布日期:2020-03-14
  • 通訊作者: 劉自剛 E-mail:[email protected]
  • 作者簡介:徐春梅,E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家自然科學基金(31660404);國家重點基礎研究發展計劃(2018YFD0100500);甘肅省高校科研成果轉化培育項目(2018D-13);甘肅省現代農業產業技術體系建設專項資金(17ZD2NA016-4)

Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Low Temperature Vernalization of Germinating Seeds of Brassica rapa

XU ChunMei,ZOU Ya,LIU ZiGang(),MI WenBo,XU MingXia,DONG XiaoYun,CAO XiaoDong,ZHENG GuoQiang,FANG XinLing   

  1. Agronomy College, Gansu Agricultural University/Gansu Rapeseed Engineering and Technology Research Center/Key Laboratory of Arid Land Crop Science in Gansu Province/Gansu Key Laboratory of Crop Improvement and Germplasm Enhancement, Lanzhou 730070
  • Received:2019-08-07 Accepted:2019-11-03 Online:2020-03-01 Published:2020-03-14
  • Contact: ZiGang LIU E-mail:[email protected]

摘要:

【目的】探討白菜型冬油菜萌動種子低溫春化的可能性,以及萌動種子春化過程其生理生化狀態和植株結實性等表型變化特征,為白菜型冬油菜人工加代繁育和加速育種進程提供理論基礎。【方法】以3個不同感溫性的白菜型冬油菜品種為材料,于4℃對油菜萌動種子進行春化處理,春化處理過程中(0、20、30、40、50和60 d)測定萌動種子的硝酸還原酶、抗氧化物酶活性、滲透調節物、丙二醛含量等生理生化指標;同時播種各春化處理萌動種子,觀察記錄種子形成植株的生育期進程、測定植株結實性能等。【結果】隨著春化處理時間的增加,白菜型冬油菜萌發種子形成的植株春化率、初花期株高、成熟期株高、一次分枝數、單株角果數、角果長、角粒數、單株產量等總體呈逐漸升高趨勢;春化處理前期(0—40 d),植株結實性能在不同品種間表現較明顯差異,春化時間增加后(50—60 d),不同品種結實能力雖略有差異,但均無顯著差異水平。回歸分析結果顯示,在4℃條件下,強冬性冬油菜隴油7號萌動種子完全春化(春化率>95%)需處理76.9 d,隴油9號和天油4號分別為54.0和39.4 d。相關分析結果表明,春化率與株高、結實性能等各表型性狀均呈極顯著正相關,其中與初花期株高、成熟期株高相關系數最大為0.947和0.985,表明白菜型冬油菜春化程度顯著影響著植株株高、結實性能等。隨低溫春化時間增加,白菜型冬油菜萌動種子硝酸還原酶、超氧化物歧化酶、過氧化物酶、丙二醛、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖呈先升高后降低的趨勢,過氧化氫酶活性呈不斷降低趨勢。與對照(未低溫處理的萌動種子)相比,低溫春化處理的隴油7號、隴油9號萌動種子GA3含量均明顯降低,春化30 d的天油4號萌動種子GA3含量明顯比對照增加。與對照相比,春化處理的冬油菜萌動種子IAA含量均明顯增加(隴油9號春化40 d處理除外),其中,春化50 d的天油4號萌動種子IAA含量比對照增加197.0%。隴油7號春化處理的萌動種子ABA含量比對照明顯增加。【結論】白菜型冬油菜萌動種子可以感受低溫使其完成春化作用,品種春化所需低溫時間取決于品種冬性強弱;低溫春化過程中,白菜型冬油菜萌動種子生理生化狀態發生了一些變化,并最終影響植株的生長發育及其結實性能。

關鍵詞: 白菜型冬油菜, 萌動種子, 表型特征, 生理生化

Abstract:

【Objective】 To explore the possibility of low temperature through vernalization to the germination of Brassica rapa, and the phenotypic changes of seed physiology and biochemistry and plant set during vernalization, so as to provide theoretical basis for artificial breeding and accelerating breeding process of B. rapa. 【Method】 Three different temperature-sensitive of B. rapa were used as materials, the germinated seeds were placed in 4℃ of low temperature for vernalization treatment. During the vernalization process (0 d, 20 d, 30 d, 40 d, 50 d, 60 d) the physiological and biochemical indexes such as nitrate reductase, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmotic regulator and malondialdehyde content of the germinated seeds were measured. Simultaneously germinated seeds of each vernalization treatment, the growth period of the seed formation plant was observed, and the seed-setting performance of the plants were measured. 【Result】 With the increase of vernalization time, the vernalization rate (V), plant height (FPH), mature plant height (MPH) and primary branch number (PB), the number of pods per plant (SP), the length of pods (LS), the number of pods (SS) and the yield per plant (YP) of germinated seeds of B. rapa showed an increasing trend; the early stage of vernalization (0-40 d), the plant's seed-setting performance showed significant differences among different varieties. After the vernalization time increased (50-60 d), the seed-setting ability of different varieties was slightly difference, but they were not significantly difference. The results of regression analysis showed that the germination seeds of strong winter rapa Longyou 7 at 4℃ were completely vernalized (springing rate >95%) and need to be treated 76.9 d, Longyou 9 and Tianyou 4 were 54.0 d, 39.4 d, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the vernalization rate was extremely significant positive correlated with plant height and seed-setting performance and other phenotypic traits. The correlation coefficient between vernalization rate with average first flower plant height and average mature plant height was 0.947 and 0.985, which indicated that vernalization degree of winter B. rapa significantly affected plant height and seed-setting performance. With the increase of low temperature vernalization time, the germinated seeds of winter B. rapa with nitrate reductase (NR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble protein (SP), Soluble sugar (SS) were increased first and then decreased, and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased continuously. Compared with the control (the germinated seeds not treated at low temperature), the content of GA3 in the germinated seeds of Longyou 7 and Longyou 9 decreased significantly at the low temperature vernalization treatment, and the content of GA3 in the germinated seeds of Tianyou 4 was significantly higher than that of the control at 30 days. Compared with the control, the content of IAA in the winter rapeseed germinated in vernalization increased significantly (except for the treatment 40 days of Longyou9). Among them, the content of IAA in the seeds treated with vernalization for 50 days of Tianyou 4 increased by 197.0% compared with the control. The ABA content of the Longyou 7 was significantly increased compared with the control. 【Conclusion】 The germination seeds of winter Brassica rapa can be perceived the low temperature to complete the vernalization. The low temperature time required for vernalization of the variety depends on the winter strength. During the process vernalization of low temperature, the physiological and biochemical status is occurring some changes of the seed of winter B. rapa, and ultimately affect the growth and development of the plant and its seed setting performance.

Key words: Brassica rapa, germination seed, phenotypic characteristics, physiological and biochemical

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