中國農業科學 ?? 2020, Vol. 53 ?? Issue (5): 1029-1045.doi: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2020.05.014

? 食品科學與工程 ? 上一篇    下一篇

葡萄酒中與風味相關4類含硫化合物的研究進展

張清安,陳博宇   

  1. 陜西師范大學食品工程與營養科學學院,西安 710119
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-28 接受日期:2019-10-29 出版日期:2020-03-01 發布日期:2020-03-14
  • 作者簡介:張清安,Tel:13572932273;E-mail:[email protected]
  • 基金資助:
    國家自然科學基金(31101324);國家自然科學基金(31972206);陜西省重點研發計劃(2018ZDXM-NY-086)

Research Progress of Four Sulfur Compounds Related to Red Wine Flavor

ZHANG QingAn,CHEN BoYu   

  1. School of Food Engineering and Nutrition Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119
  • Received:2019-07-28 Accepted:2019-10-29 Online:2020-03-01 Published:2020-03-14

摘要:

含硫化合物如谷胱甘肽、硫醇、硫化氫、二氧化硫等都是葡萄酒中重要的風味物質,這4類含硫化合物的含量和形態影響著葡萄酒的風味,且兩者都與這4類含硫化合物的來源、檢測方法及葡萄酒生產工藝有直接或間接的關系,但針對以上方面的結論仍不統一。基于此,本文整理了這4類含硫化合物在葡萄酒中的含量和存在形態、來源、檢測方法、貯藏期間的變化及控制方法這5個方面的研究進展。就含量和存在形態而言,谷胱甘肽主要以還原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)的形式存在,含量不高于70 mg?L -1;硫醇以游離態存在,或與金屬離子結合,硫醇含量與具體種類相關,數量級從ng?L -1到μg?L -1不等;硫化氫主要以結合態存在,易與金屬離子結合,總含量不高于30 μg?L -1;二氧化硫常以氣體形式或亞硫酸氫根形式存在,或與含羰基化合物結合,總含量為64.8—166.5 mg?L -1。在來源方面,這4類含硫化合物都與發酵期間釀酒酵母的代謝活動有關。谷胱甘肽主要來源于未發酵葡萄汁原料,少部分來源于氨基酸的發酵代謝;硫醇來源于含硫氨基酸、谷胱甘肽的發酵代謝及以硫化氫為底物的化學反應;硫化氫主要源于含硫氨基酸、硫酸鹽和亞硫酸鹽的發酵代謝;二氧化硫主要來源于外源添加劑,也有少部分源自硫酸鹽的發酵代謝。檢測這4類含硫化合物時,常采用化學檢測方法或光譜法,此類方法檢測快速但誤差較大;色譜法精確度高,但是樣品預處理復雜,儀器昂貴。在貯藏期間葡萄酒中的鐵、銅等過渡金屬離子和氧氣引起的Fenton反應和氧化反應顯著影響部分硫醇和硫化氫的含量。最后針對部分含硫化合物帶來的異味,可以通過優化原料品質、篩選釀酒酵母菌株、改進二氧化硫添加工藝、添加金屬鹽等方法降低。在今后的研究中,可從優化檢測方法、探究發酵和貯藏陳釀期間含硫化合物變化機理、改進葡萄酒生產環節等方面展開工作。

關鍵詞: 葡萄酒, 含硫化合物, 來源, 檢測方法, 控制方法

Abstract:

Sulfur compounds in wines such as glutathione, thiol, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are the important flavor compounds, and their content and existing forms greatly affect the wine flavor. The four sulfur compounds are investigated based on the origin and analysis method as well as the winemaking process, while the results on the above aspects are not in agreement in many studies. In this paper, the research progress was summarized about the content, form, origin, analysis method, evolution during storage, and controlling means of the four sulfur compounds in wine. In terms of content and form, the glutathione mainly existed in the reduced form of GSH, and its content was no more than 70 mg?L -1. Thiol might exist in the free form or combined with metal ions, and its content depended on the specific form ranging from ng?L -1 to μg?L -1. Hydrogen sulfide mainly existed in binding state and easily binds to metal ions, and its total content was no more than 30 μg?L -1. Sulfur dioxide often existed in the form of gas or bisulfite (H2SO3 - ) or binds to the carbonyl compounds, and its total content ranged from 64.8 mg?L -1 to 166.5 mg?L -1. In terms of the origin, these four kinds of sulfur compounds were all related to the microorganisms’ metabolic activities during fermentation. To be specific, the glutathione mainly came from the un-fermented grape juice, and a small part came from the amino acid metabolism. Thiol was mainly from the metabolism of the sulfur amino acid and glutathione as well as the chemical synthesis with the hydrogen sulfide as substrate. Hydrogen sulfide mainly came from the sulfur amino acid metabolism, sulfates and sulfites. Sulfur dioxide came from the exogenous additives and the sulfate metabolism. In terms of analysis method, chemical or spectroscopy method was often used, which could be detected quickly to a certain extent, but causing a large error. Regarding the chromatography technique, it had a higher accuracy, but the sample preparation was complicated and the instrument was expensive. The Fenton reaction, i.e. the oxidation initiated by the oxygen and transition metal ions such as iron and copper ion might significantly affect the contents of thiol and hydrogen sulfide during the storage of wine. Finally, to reduce the unpleasant odor caused by some sulfur compounds, some measures could be conducted including optimizing the quality of grape and must, screening the beneficial yeast strains, improving sulfur dioxide addition process and adding metal salts. In conclusion, future researches could be focused on optimizing the detection method, exploring the changing mechanism of the four kinds of sulfur compounds during fermentation and storage, and improving the wine-making process, so as to provide a reference for the winery.

Key words: wine, sulfur compounds, origin, detection method, control means

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