中國農業科學 ?? 2008, Vol. 41 ?? Issue (1): 142-152 .

? 土壤肥料·節水灌溉·農業生態環境 ? 上一篇    下一篇

長期有機無機肥料配施對土壤微生物學特性及土壤肥力的影響

李 娟,趙秉強,李秀英,Hwat Bing So   

  1. 中國農業科學院農業資源與農業區劃研究所
  • 收稿日期:2007-05-09 修回日期:2007-06-08 出版日期:2008-01-10 發布日期:2008-01-10
  • 通訊作者: 趙秉強

Effects of long-term combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil microbiological properties and soil fertility

  

  1. 中國農業科學院農業資源與農業區劃研究所
  • Received:2007-05-09 Revised:2007-06-08 Online:2008-01-10 Published:2008-01-10

摘要: 【目的】研究長期有機無機肥料配施條件下土壤微生物學特性(土壤微生物量、土壤酶活性)與土壤質量的關系,闡明土壤微生物對土壤健康的生物指示功能。【方法】以國家褐潮土肥力與肥料效益監測基地的長期肥料試驗為平臺,應用氯仿熏蒸-K2SO4 提取法和化學分析法分析了長達15年不同施肥處理的農田土壤微生物量碳、微生物量氮(SMBC、SMBN)和土壤酶活性之間的差異及其調控土壤肥力的作用。【結果】長期不同施肥處理土壤中SMBC變化介于96.49~500.12 mg•kg-1之間,SMBN變化介于35.89~101.82 mg•kg-1之間;單施化肥(NPK)與不施肥的CK相比,SMBC、SMBN、微生物商(qMB)、微生物量碳/氮比(SMBC/SMBN)、脲酶(Urease)活性以及土壤有機質(SOM)、全氮(STN)、全磷(STP)含量都有所提高;化肥與豬廄肥或秸稈還田配合施用,上述土壤微生物學特性以及土壤養分狀況比單施NPK處理得到進一步改善,豬廄肥增量處理(NPKM+)效果最明顯。同時,在北京褐潮土石灰性土壤上(pH 8.0左右)長期施有機肥有一定降低土壤pH的效應。SMBC、SMBN、Urease活性與SOM、STN、STP含量呈極顯著正相關關系;SMBC/SMBN與SOM、 STN含量呈顯著正相關關系;qMB、過氧化氫酶(Catalase)活性與SOM、STN 、STP含量無顯著相關關系;除過氧化氫酶外,土壤pH值與其它土壤微生物學特性指標呈極顯著負相關關系。【結論】長期有機無機肥料配施可提高土壤微生物量碳氮、脲酶活性。化肥與增量豬廄肥配施對增強土壤肥力效果最好;土壤微生物學特性可以反映土壤質量的變化,并可用作評價土壤健康的生物指標。

關鍵詞: 長期施肥, 有機無機肥料配施, 土壤微生物量, 土壤酶, 土壤肥力

Abstract: In this paper the effects of long-term (15 years) combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil microbiological properties and soil fertility was carried out based on the long-term fertilizer experiments in Fluvo-aquic soil in Changping County, Beijing, China. The main results are as follows: Long-term application of chemical fertilizers only (NPK) compared with long-term no fertilizer usage (CK) increased the soil microbial biomass of C (SMBC) &N (SMBN), SMBC/SOC (soil organic C), SMBC/SMBN, Urease activity, and soil organic matter (SOM), soil total nitrogen (STN) and soil total phosphorus (STP) in a certain degree. Combined application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure or crop straw can have even more significant increase effects on above related soil and microbiological properties than long-term applying NPK fertilizer only. The more the application amounts of organic manure or crop straw, the more significant the increase effects of above related soil and microbiological properties. Meantime long-term application of organic manure or crop straw can slightly decrease the soil pH under alkaline Fluvo-aquic soil (the pH around 8.00 in this experimental soil). A positive co relationship was found between soil microbial biomass of C (SMBC) &N (SMBN), Urease activity and soil organic matter (SOM), soil total nitrogen (STN) and soil total phosphorus (STP) .

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